Maryland Mammals

Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have hair and produce milk. Sometimes the hair can be sparse, or it can be modified hairs like quills on a porcupine. Seven species of mammals are extirpated in Maryland, or no longer can be found wild in the state. These species include the American bison, American elk, American marten, Eastern harvest mouse, Eastern mountain lion, gray wolf, and snowshoe hare. Over 20 species of mammals are considered to be rare, threatened or endangered in Maryland. ​For a complete list of rare animals in Maryland, please click here. Mammals such as the nutria, black rat, Norway rat, house mouse, sika deer and feral pony have been introduced to Maryland; nutria were eradicated in 2022.

This list includes species considered accidental, vagrant, introduced or extirpated. Special thanks go to Gene Scarpulla and Susan Knowles for their assistance and information regarding marine mammals.

Common Names are followed by the italicized Scientific Name


Virginia opossumDidelphis virginiana

Masked Shrew, photo courtesy of Phil MyersShrews

Masked shrew, Sorex cinereus
Southeastern shrew, Sorex longirostris
Southern Water shrew, Sorex palustrispunctulatus
Smoky shrew, Sorex fumeus
Long-tailed shrew, Sorex dispar
Southern pygmy shrew, Sorex hoyiwinnemana
Northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda
Least shrew, Cryptotis parva


Hairy-tailed mole, Parascalops breweri
Eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus
Southeastern star-nosed mole, Condylura cristataparva

Northern long-eared bat by: Joy O’KeefeBats

Little brown batMyotis lucifugus
Indiana batMyotis sodalis
Eastern small-footed bat, ​Myotis leibii
Northern long-eared batMyotis septentrionalis
Silver-haired batLasionycteris noctivagans
Tricolored BatPerimy​​​o​​tis subflavus
Big brown batEptesicus fuscus
Red batLasiurus borealis
Hoary batLasiur​us cinereus
Evening batNycticeius humeralis

Rabbits and HaresSouthernFlyingSquirrel_JPMyers.jpg

Eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus
Appalachian cottontail, Sylvilagus obscurus
Snowshoe hareLepus americanus

Squirrels and Chipmunks

Eastern chipmunkTamias striatus
Groundhog (aka Woodchuck), Marmota monax
Eastern gray squirrelSciurus carolinensis
Eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger
Delmarva fox squirrel, Sciurus niger cinereus
Red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
Southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans


American beaverCastor canadensis

White-footed deer mouse by: Phil MyersNew World Mice and Rats

Marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris
Eastern harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys humulis
Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus
White-footed deer mousePeromyscus leucopus
Allegheny woodrat, Neotoma magister


Southern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys gapperi
Meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus
Southern Rock vole, Microtus chrotorrhinuscarolinensis
Woodland vole, Microtus pinetorum


MuskratOndatra zibethicus


Southern bog lemming, Synaptomys cooperi

Old World Mice and Rats Meadow jumping mouse by: Phil Myers

Black rat, Rattus rattus
Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus
House mouse, Mus musculus

Jumping Mice

Meadow jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius
Woodland jumping mouse​, Napaeozapus insignis


PorcupineErethizon dorsatum


NutriaMyocastor coypus

Nutria at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS

Dwarf Sperm Whales

Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps
Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia simus

Sperm Whales

Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus

Toothed Whales

Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris
True's beaked whale, Mesoplodon mirus

Killer whale by: Phil MyersOceanic Dolphins and Pilot Whales

Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis
Bottle-nosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus
Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis
Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba
Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus
Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus
Killer whale, Orcinus orca
Long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas
Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus
Melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra


Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

Rorqual whales

Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus
Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis
Common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata

Coyote by: Doug Herr/Painet Inc.Bowhead whales and right whales

North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis


Manatee, Trichechus manatus

Coyotes, Wolves and Foxes

CoyoteCanis latrans
Gray wolf, Canis lupus
Red fox, Vulpes vulpes
Gray foxUrocyon cinereoargenteus


Black bearUrsus americanus


Raccoon Procyon lotor


Striped skunk by: Phil MyersEastern spotted skunk,     Spilogale putorius
Striped skunkMephitis mephitis

Weasels, Minks and Otters

American marten, Martes americana
FisherPekania pennanti
American ermine, Mustela richardsonii
Least weasel, Mustela nivalis
Long-tailed weaselNeogale frenata
MinkNeovison vison
Northern river otterLontra canadensis


Harbor seal, Phoca vitulina
Harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus
Hooded seal, Cystophora cristata
Gray seal, Halichoerus grypus

Bobcat by David Westphalen/Painet Inc.Cats

Eastern mountain lion, Felis concolor
Bobcat, Lynx rufus

Hoofed mammals

American elk, Cervus elaphus
Sika deerCervus nippon
White-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianus
American bison, Bos bison
Feral horse (Assateague pony), Equus caballus

For more information, please contact:

Maryland Department of Natural Resources
Wildlife and Heritage Service
Tawes State Office Building, E-1
Annapolis MD 21401
Toll-free in Maryland: 1-877-620-8DNR​