Maryland's Turtles and Tortoises (Order Testudines)

Maryland's Turtles & Tortoises (Order Testudines)

244 species worldwide, 19 species in Maryland

Overview of Maryland’s Turtles

As every school kid knows, turtles are the reptiles that carry their house around on their backs. In softshelled turtles, the shell is made of cartilage.  In hardshelled turtles, it is a bony extension from the ribs.  We use the shape of the carapace (top shell) and the plastron (bottom shell) as one characteristic to distinguish species.  The carapace can be flattened or domed, keeled or unkeeled, flared or rounded.  The scales, or scutes, may smooth or inscribed and rough.  The margins may be notched, serrated, or entire (smooth).  The plastron may have one hinge, or two, which allows the turtle to close up.  Or it may have no hinges.  Of course, colors on the shell as well as on the head, neck and legs are important.  We can sometimes use the color of the eyes to distinguish males from females.

Turtle and Tortoise Anatomy​

There are six families and nineteen species of turtles (including sea turtles) that can be found in Maryland.

Turtle Family Number of Species & Subspecies in Maryland
Box and Water Turtles (Emydidae) 11
Musk and Mud Turtles (Kinosternidae) 2
Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae) 1
Softshell Turtles (Trionychidae) 1
Sea Turtles 4

Box and Water Turtles (Emydidae)

The largest family of turtles worldwide (they are found on every continent except Australia and Antartica), this family is represented in Maryland by eleven species of turtle. With such diversity comes a variety of body types and habitat choices. Usually, the carapace is no highly domed, but there are a few species with high arches to their shells. Many species have a plastron that hinges, allowing for complete or partial closure. Several are almost completely aquatic while others are primarily terrestrial. The name Emydidae comes from the Greek "emys", meaning "freshwater terrapin" some of our turtles will also use brackish water.

Eleven of the nineteen species of turtles in Maryland are from this family. These include: bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii), spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata), wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta), eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), midland painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata), eastern painted turtle (Chrysemys picta picta), eastern river cooter (Pseudemys concinna concinna), northern red-bellied turtle (Pseudemys rubriventris), northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica), and the northern diamond-backed terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin).


PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status

Photo of Bog Turtle courtesy of Lori Erb
Photo of Bog Turtle courtesy of Lori Erb

​Bog Turtle

Glyptemys muhlenbergii

Threatened
Photo of Spotted Turtle courtesy of Tony Prochaska. 

Photo of Spotted Turtle courtesy of Tony Prochaska.

​Spotted Turtle

Clemmys guttata

Photo of Wood Turtle courtesy of Linh Phu.
Photo of Wood Turtle courtesy of Linh Phu.

Wood Turtle​

Glyptemys insculpta

Photo of  Eastern Box Turtle courtesy of Scott A. Smith
Photo of  Eastern Box Turtle courtesy of Scott A. Smith

​​
Eastern Box T​urtle

Terrapine c. carolina​

Photo of Red-eared Slider courtesy of John White
Photo of Red-eared Slider courtesy of John White

Red-eared Slider

Trachemys scripta elegans

Photo of Eastern Painted Turtle courtesy of Corey Wickliffe
Photo of Eastern Painted Turtle courtesy of Corey Wickliffe

​Eastern Painted Turtle 

Chrysemys p. picta​

Midland Painted Turtle Photo Courtesy of Linh Phu
Midland Painted Turtle Photo Courtesy of Linh Phu

​Midland Painted Turtle

Chrysemys picta marginata​

Photo of Eastern River Cooter courtesy of John White.
Photo of Eastern River Cooter courtesy of John White.

​Eastern River Cooter 

Pseudemys c. concinna​

Photo of Northern Red-bellied Cooter courtesy of John White.
Photo of Northern Red-bellied Cooter courtesy of John White.

​Northern Red-bellied Cooter

​Pseudemys rubriventris

Photo of Northern Map Turtle courtesy of Jim Harding
Photo of Northern Map Turtle courtesy of Jim Harding

​Northern Map Turtle 

Graptemys geographica​

Endangered


Photo of Northern Diamond-backed Terrapin courtesy of Lori Erb

​Northern Diamond-backed Terrapin 

Malaclemys t. terrapin​

​​​​​​

Musk and Mud Turtles (Kinosternidae)

As the name implies, some of these turtles will release a strong scent when disturbed. They have paired glands on either side of the body, just inside where the bridge connects the carapace and plastron. Although they may bask, our two Kinosternids are primarily aquatic. A good way to tell the difference between mud and musk turtles is by looking at the plastron. In eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum), the plastron is relatively large with 2 hinges. Our eastern musk turtle (Sternotherus odoratus), formerly called the stinkpot, has a much reduced plastron with only 1 hinge.​


PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status

Photo of Eastern Musk Turtle courtesy of John White
Photo of Eastern Musk Turtle courtesy of John White

​Eastern Musk Turtle

Sternotherus odoratus​

Photo of Eastern Mud Turtle courtesy of Mark Tegges
Photo of Eastern Mud Turtle courtesy of Mark Tegges

​Eastern Mud Turtle 

Kinosternon s. subrubrum​

Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae)

Currently, in the world there are only two living members, or genera, of the Chelydridae family, our own eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentine) and the alligator snapping turtle, which is not found in Maryland. There are also seven extinct genera of this family.

As the name suggests, this turtle is known for its surly disposition when threatened. Their very long necks allow them to reach farther than other turtles to snap at predators coming from behind. Never pick up a turtle by its tail; this can damage the animal's spine.​


PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status
Photo of Eastern Snapping Turtle courtesy of Linh Phu.
Photo of Eastern Snapping Turtle courtesy of Linh Phu.

​Eastern Snapping Turtle 

​Chelydra s. serpentina

​​

Softshell Turtles (Trionychidae)

The bony scutes found in hardshell turtles are missing in these softshelled cousins. The carapace is leathery while the plastron is much reduced. Our one species, the eastern spiny softshell is primarily aquatic. Their long tubular snouts act like snorkels, allowing the animals to remain submerged.​


 

 Maryland's Turtles and Tortoises (3)

 
PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status

Photo of Eastern Spiny Softshell courtesy of Linh Phu
Photo of Eastern Spiny Softshell courtesy of Linh Phu

​Eastern Spiny Softshell 

Apalone s. spinifera​

In Need of Conservation
​​

Sea Turtles (Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae)

These animals are fully aquatic, emerging from the waters only to breed and lay eggs. In addition to huge lungs, they can also do without oxygen from the air as they submerge for up to 30 minutes. Most have hard shells; the leatherback (our only member of the Dermochelyidae Family) lacks a bony carapace and instead has skin embedded with little bony deposits over it back.

Maryland species include: Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta), Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas), Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), and Atlantic Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata imbricate).

All species of sea turtles are listed as Threatened or Endangered.​​​​​​​​​

PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status

Photo of Loggerhead Seaturtle courtesy of JohnWhite
Photo of Loggerhead Seaturtle courtesy of JohnWhite

​Loggerhead Seaturtle

Caretta caretta​

Threatened

Photo of Kemp's Ridley Seaturtle Nesting, courtesy of National Park Service
Photo of Kemp's Ridley Seaturtle Nesting,
courtesy of National Park Service

​Kemp’s Ridley Seaturtle

Lepidochelys kempii​

Endangered

Green Seaturtle, i-Stock Image
 

​Green Seaturtle

Chelonia mydas​

Threatened


Photo of Leatherback Seaturtle courtesy of Scott R. Benson,
NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center

​Leatherback Seaturtle

Dermochelys coriacea​

Endangered

Atlantic Hawksbill Seaturtle, i-Stock photo 

​Atlantic Hawksbill Seaturtle

Eretmochelys i. imbricata​

Endangered