Deer in Spring Landscape

Maryland's Wildlife Species - Birds of Maryland


A total of 436 bird species have been documented in Maryland. Of these, 222 species are known to have nested in the state. Thirteen species are extinct, extirpated from Maryland as breeding species, or have not been recorded as breeding in the state in recent years (ca. past 20 years) and may be extirpated. These species include Bachman’s Sparrow, Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Swainson’s Thrush, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Roseate Tern and Greater Prairie Chicken.

Seventy-two species of birds are rare, threatened or endangered in Maryland. For a complete list of rare animals in Maryland, please click here. Species such as the Mute Swan, House Sparrow, European Starling and House Finch are not native to Maryland.

This list is based on the Official List of the Birds of Maryland, 30 November 2011 version, compiled by the MD/DC Records Committee of the Maryland Ornithological Society. Species ordering and names conform to the Check-List of North American Birds, 51st edition, by the American Ornithologist's Union. This list includes vagrants, accidentals and species considered extirpated or extinct.

Common Names are followed by the italicized scientific names:

Horned Grebe with young, photo by Donna Dewhurst, USFWSLoons

Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata
Pacific Loon Gavia pacifica
Common Loon Gavia immer

Grebes

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena
Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
Western Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis

Albatrosses

Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos

Shearwaters and Petrels

Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata
Greater Shearwater, photo by Amanda Boyd, USFWSCory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea
Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii
Greater Shearwater Puffinus gravis
Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus
Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri

Storm-Petrels

Wilson's Storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus
White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina
Leach's Storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma castro

Gannets

Northern Gannet Morus bassanus

Brown Pelican, Photo by Kerry WixtedPelicans

American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

Cormorants

Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

Darters

Anhinga Anhinga anhinga

Frigatebirds

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens

Herons and Bitterns

American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
Great Egret Ardea alba
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Snowy Egret, Photo by Kerry Wixted
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea
Reddish Heron Egretta rufescens
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
Green Heron Butorides virescens
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Yellow-crowned Night-heron Nyctanassa violacea

Ibises and Spoonbills

White Ibis Eudocimus albus
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja

Storks

Wood Stork Mycteria americana

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Black-bellied Whistling-duck Dendrocygna autumnalis
Fulvous Whistling-duck Dendrocygna bicolor
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
Snow Goose Chen caerulescens
Ross's Goose Chen rossii
Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii
Canada Goose Branta canadensis
Brant Branta bernicla
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus
Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator Northern Shoveler, photo by Dr. Thomas G. Barnes, USFWS
Wood Duck Aix sponsa
Gadwall Anas strepera
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope
American Wigeon Anas americana
American Black Duck Anas rubripes
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors
Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata
Northern Pintail Anas acuta
Green-winged Teal Anas crecca
Canvasback Aythya valisineria
Redhead Aythya americana
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
Greater Scaup Aythya marila
Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis
King Eider Somateria spectabilis Hooded Merganser, photo by Lee Karney, USFWS
Common Eider Somateria mollissima
Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus
Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca
Black Scoter Melanitta americana
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica
Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus
Common Merganser Mergus merganser
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator
Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis

New World Vultures

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Osprey Pandion haliaetus Northern Goshawk, photo by Dave Brinker
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus
Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus
Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus
Swainson's Hawk Buteo swainsoni
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
Rough-legged Hawk Buteo lagopus
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos

Falcons

American Kestrel Falco sparverius
Merlin Falco columbarius
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

Partridges, Grouse and Turkeys

Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus
Greater Prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido
Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo

New World Quail

Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus Young American Kestrel, photo by Steve Hillebrand, USFWS

Limpkins

Limpkin Aramus guarauna

Rails, Gallinules and Coots

Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis
Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis
Corn Crake Crex crex
Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris
King Rail Rallus elegans
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola
Sora Porzana carolina
Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
American Coot Fulica americana

Cranes

Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis Sora, photo by Dave Menke, USFWS

Lapwings and Plovers

Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola
American Golden-plover Pluvialis dominica
Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus

Oystercatchers

American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus

Stilts and Avocets

Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
American Avocet Recurvirostra americana

Sandpipers and Phalaropes

Solitary Sandpiper, photo by Richard OrrGreater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria
Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus
Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Red Knot Calidris canutus
Sanderling Calidris alba
Semi-palmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis
Little Stint Calidris minuta
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis
Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima
Dunlin Calidris alpina
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis
Ruff Philomachus pugnax
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago
American Woodcock Scolopax minor
Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicaria

Skuas, Gulls, Terns, Skimmers

Laughing Gull chicks, photo by Donna Dewhurst, USFWS
Great Skua Stercorarius skua
South Polar Skua Stercorarius maccormicki
Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus
Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla
Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus
Bonaparte’s Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Mew Gull Larus canus
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis
California Gull Larus californicus
Herring Gull Larus argentatus
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
Thayer’s Gull Larus thayeri
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximusRoyal Terns, photo by George Jett
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii
Common Tern Sterna hirundo
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea
Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri
Least Tern Sterna antillarum
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus
Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus
Black Tern Chlidonias niger
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger

Auks, Murres, Puffins

Dovekie Alle alle
Common Murre Uria aalge
Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia
Razorbill Alca torda
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica

Pigeons and Doves

Mourning Dove, photo by USFWSRock Dove Columba livia
Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto
White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura
Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius
Inca Dove Columbina inca
Common ground-dove Columbina passerina

Parakeets and Parrots

Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis

Cuckoos and Anis

Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus
Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris

Barn Owls

Barn owl Tyto alba

Typical Owls

Northern Saw-whet Owl, photo by George Jett Eastern screech-owl Megascops asio
Great horned Owl Bubo virginianus
Snowy Owl Bubo scandiaca
Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia
Barred Owl Strix varia
Long-eared Owl Asio otus
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
Northern Saw-whet Owl Aegolius acadicus

Nighthawks and Nightjars

Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor
Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis
Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus

Swifts

Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica

Hummingbirds

Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris
Anna’s Hummingbird Calypte anna
Calliope Hummingbird Stellula calliope
Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus
Allen’s Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin

Kingfishers

Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon

Woodpeckers

Pileated Woodpecker, photo by Dave KazyakRed-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus
Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus
Yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius
Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens
Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus
Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus
Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus

Tyrant Flycatchers

Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi
Eastern Wood-pewee Contopus virens
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris
Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens
Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum
Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus
Hammond's Flycatcher Empidonax hammondii
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe
Say’s Phoebe Sayornis saya
Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus
Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens
Great crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus
Gray Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficatus
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana

Shrikes

Loggerhead Shrike, photo by Dave Menke, USFWSNorthern Shrike Lanius excubitor
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus

Vireos

White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons
Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

Crows and Jays

Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata
American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos
Fish Crow Corvus ossifragus
Common Raven Corvus corax

Larks

Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris

Swallows

Purple Martin Progne subis
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

Chickadees and TitmiceTree Swallow, photo by Donna Dewhurst, USFWS

Carolina Chickadee Poecile carolinensis
Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapillus
Boreal Chickadee Poecile hudsonicus
Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor

Creepers

Brown Creeper Certhia americana

Nuthatches

Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis
Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta pusilla

Wrens

Rock Wren Salpinctes obsoletus
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus
Bewick's Wren Thryomanes bewickii
House Wren Troglodytes aedon
Winter Wren Troglodytes hiemalis
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis
Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris

KingletsCarolina Wren, photo by George Miller

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Old World Warblers and Gnatcatchers

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea

Thrushes

Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis
Mountain Bluebird Sialia currucoides
Townsend's Solitaire Myadestes townsendi
Veery Catharus fuscescens
Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus
Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli
Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina
American Robin Turdus migratorius
Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius

Brown Thrasher, photo by Dan Sudia, USFWSMockingbirds and Thrashers

Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis
Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos
Sage Thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum

Starlings

European Starling Sturnus vulgaris

Pipits

American Pipit Anthus rubescens

Waxwings

Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus
Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum

Wood Warblers

Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinusYellow Warbler, photo by Tom Tetzner, USFWS
Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera
Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina
Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis celata
Nashville Warbler Oreothlypis ruficapilla
Northern Parula Parula americana
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia
Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens
Townsend’s Warbler Dendroica townsendi
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens
Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus
Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum
Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea
Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata
Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea
Black-and-White Warbler Mniotilta varia
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla
Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea
Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum
Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus
Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis
Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla
Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis
Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina
Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens

Tanagers

Summer Tanager Piranga rubra
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea
Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana

Emberizids

Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus
Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus Eastern Towhee, photo by Bill Thompson, USFWS
Bachman's Sparrow Peucaea aestivalis
American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus
Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum
Baird's Sparrow Ammodramus bairdii
Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii
Le Conte's Sparrow Ammodramus leconteii
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus nelsoni
Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus
Seaside Sparrow Ammodramus maritimus
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia
Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis
Harris's Sparrow Zonotrichia querula
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys White-crowned Sparrow, photo by Dave Menke, USFWS
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis
Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus
Smith's Longspur Calcarius pictus
Chestnut-collared Longspur Calcarius ornatus
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis

Cardinals

Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus
Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus
Blue Grosbeak Guiraca caerulea
Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena
Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea
Painted Bunting Passerina ciris
Dickcissel Spiza americana

Blackbirds

Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna
Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta
Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Indigo Bunting, photo by Dave Menke, USFWS
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus
Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus
Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula
Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula
Bullock's Oriole Icterus bullockii

Finches

Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator
Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus
House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus
Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera
Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea
Hoary Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni
Pine Siskin Spinus pinus
American Goldfinch Spinus tristis
Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus

Old World Sparrows

House Sparrow Passer domesticusAmerican Goldfinch, photo by Dave Brezinski, USFWS

Acknowledgements:

  • Horned Grebe by Donna Dewhurst, USFWS

  • Greater Shearwater by Amanda Boyd, USFWS

  • Brown Pelican and Snowy Egret by Kerry Wixted

  • Northern Shoveler by Dr. Thomas G. Barnes, USFWS

  • Hooded Merganser by Lee Karney, USFWS

  • Northern Goshawk by Dave Brinker

  • American Kestrel by Steve Hillbrand

  • Sora by Dave Menke, USFWS

  • Solitary Sandpiper by Richard Orr

  • Laughing Gull by Donna Dewhurst, USFWS

  • Royal Terns by George Jett

  • Mourning Dove by USFWS

  • Northern Saw-whet Owl by George Jett

  • Pileated Woodpecker by Dave Kazyak

  • Loggerhead Shrike by Dave Menke, USFWS

  • Carolina Wren by George Miller

  • Brown Thrasher by Dan Sudia, USFWS

  • Yellow Warbler by Tom Tetzner, USFWS

  • Eastern Towhee by Bill Thompson, USFWS

  • White-Crowned Sparrow by Dave Menke, USFWS

  • Indigo Bunting by Dave Menke, USFWS

  • American Goldfinch by Dave Brezinski, USFWS

  • For more information, please contact:

    Maryland Department of Natural Resources
    Wildlife and Heritage Service
    Tawes State Office Building, E-1
    Annapolis MD 21401
    410-260-8540
    Toll-free in Maryland: 1-877-620-8DNR