Field Guide to Maryland's Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)
True Toads (Family Bufonidae)
True toads have thick, dry, warty skin and have enlarged, warty glands in the shoulder region called parotoid glands. Unlike most frogs, true toads tend to produce short hops to escape danger rather than long leaps (Conant and Collins 1998).
There are only two species of true toads found in Maryland. They include the eastern American toad (Anaxyrus americanus americanus) and the Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus fowleri).
The two species can be distinguished from each other based on the number of warts in each pigmented spot on the dorsum, the presence or absence of conspicuously enlarged warts on the tibia, spotting on the chest, and the amount of separation between the cranial crest and the parotoid glands (Conant and Collins 1998).
Click on a picture or species name for profiles
of each of the 2 true toads found in Maryland.
- Discover Maryland's Herps
- Maryland Herp History
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- Survey Techniques, Collecting Ethics, Safety and the Law
- Problems with Buying Frogs and Tadpoles for Wild Release
- Technical Guide: A Key to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Maryland - 86.3 MB pdf file
- Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas (MARA) Project
- Natural Heritage Program
- Wildlife & Heritage Home
"A Joint Project of the Natural History Society of Maryland, Inc. and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources"
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The Maryland Herpetology Field Guide is a cooperative effort of the MD Natural Heritage Program and the MD Biological Stream Survey within the Department of Natural Resources and their partners. We wish to thank all who contributed field records, text, and photographs, as well as support throughout its development.