Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes peaty oligohaline marshes, well away from tidal guts, with frequent to dominant Eleocharis fallax and Eleocharis rostellata; these have been termed 'spikerush lawns' in very slightly brackish (oligohaline) marshes. Other characteristic species can include Centella erecta, Eriocaulon decangulare, Ludwigia alata, Cyperus haspan, Cladium mariscoides, Sabatia dodecandra, Eryngium aquaticum, Proserpinaca palustris, Ludwigia alata, and Juncus spp. This alliance ranges from Maryland southwards along the southeastern Coastal Plain. Salinity is 0.5-5 ppt. Even though there is some variability in the expression of this marsh vegetation between North Carolina and Virginia examples, only one association has been described.
Range: This alliance ranges from Maryland southwards along the southeastern coastal plain. It is found in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, and possibly elsewhere.
States/Provinces: AL DE FL LA MD NC NY VA
TNC Ecoregions: 31:C, 53:C, 55:P, 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Aa:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Eglin); NPS (Assateague Island, Fire Island); USFWS (Chincoteague)
Synonymy: Tidal Freshwater Marsh, Oligohaline Variant, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)
References: Fleming 1998, Schafale and Weakley 1990
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY 1-95, MOD. G, JT, Southeast Identifier: A.1474
ELEOCHARIS FALLAX - ELEOCHARIS ROSTELLATA - SCHOENOPLECTUS AMERICANUS - SAGITTARIA LANCIFOLIA HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Creeping Spikerush - Beaked Spikerush - Chairmaker's Bulrush - Lanceleaf Arrowhead Herbaceous Vegetation
Atlantic Coast Tidal Oligohaline Spikerush Marsh G1 (00-01-23)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Oligohaline and Fresh Tidal Marshes (202-40; n/a)
Concept: This association represents oligohaline tidal marshes of the Atlantic coast dominated by Eleocharis fallax, Eleocharis rostellata, Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus), Pontederia cordata, Sagittaria lancifolia, and others. Other characteristic species can include Centella erecta, Eriocaulon decangulare, Ludwigia alata, Cyperus haspan, Cladium mariscoides, Sabatia dodecandra, Eryngium aquaticum, Proserpinaca palustris, Ludwigia alata, and Juncus spp. Sites are peaty, oligohaline marshes, well away from tidal guts, and have been called 'spikerush lawns.' Salinity is 0.5-5 ppt.
Comments: Marshes in North Carolina and Virginia have been described as having somewhat different species composition. It is not clear, though, that the differences are significant. They are grouped together here at this time.
States/Provinces: DE:S1, MD:S?, NC:S3, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Tidal Freshwater Marsh (Oligohaline Low Marsh Subtype) (Schafale 2000), Eleocharis fallax - Sagittaria lancifolia - Polygonum punctatum Tidally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation (Fleming and Moorhead 1998), Eleocharis rostellata - Eleocharis fallax - Cladium mariscoides Tidally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation (Fleming and Moorhead 1998)
References: Bowman 2000, Fleming 1998, Fleming and Moorhead 1998, Fleming et al. 2001, Frost et al. 1990, Harrison 2001, Schafale 2000, Schafale and Weakley 1990
Authors: SCS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL004628
ELEOCHARIS ROSTELLATA - SPARTINA PATENS HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Beaked Spikerush - Saltmeadow Cordgrass Herbaceous Vegetation
Spikerush Lawn Tidal Marsh G? (00-04-17)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Salt and Brackish Tidal Marshes (202-30; n/a)
Concept: This association is an irregularly flooded brackish marsh occurring as a narrow band in the transition zone between high salt marsh and salt shrub vegetation. Groundwater seepage dilutes tidal floodwaters. It occurs on peat or muck of variable depth over sand. It is heavily dominated by Eleocharis rostellata, growing in association with Spartina patens, Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens), Typha angustifolia, Distichlis spicata, Juncus gerardii, Cladium mariscoides, Eleocharis fallax, Lythrum lineare, Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus (= Samolus parviflorus), and Galium tinctorium, and Centella erecta and Fimbristylis castanea in the southern extent of the range. Baccharis halimifolia and Iva frutescens can occur sporadically. It is currently described from barrier islands along the Mid- and North Atlantic Coast.
Range: This association occurs along the Atlantic Coast from Virginia and Maryland, and northward to New York.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, NY:S3S4, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Aa:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCC, 232C:CC
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island, Fire Island); USFWS (Chincoteague)
References: Bowman 2000, Coulling 2002, Edinger et al. 2002, Sneddon and Lundgren 2001
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006611
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
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This Page Up-dated on April 27, 2010