Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance, found in virtually every state in the United States and probably most Canadian provinces, contains stands dominated by Typha angustifolia and/or Typha latifolia, either alone or in combination with other tall emergent marsh species. Associated species vary widely; in the Midwest they include many sedges such as Carex aquatilis, Carex rostrata, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), bulrushes such as Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus), Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus), and Schoenoplectus heterochaetus (= Scirpus heterochaetus), and broad-leaved herbs such as Thelypteris palustris, Asclepias incarnata, Impatiens capensis, Sagittaria latifolia, Scutellaria lateriflora, Sparganium eurycarpum, Hibiscus moscheutos, and Verbena hastata. Floating aquatics such as Lemna minor may predominate in deeper zones.
This alliance is found most commonly along lake margins and in shallow basins, and occasionally in river backwaters. Lacustrine cattail marshes typically have a muck-bottom zone bordering the shoreline, where cattails are rooted in the bottom substrate, and a floating mat zone, where the roots grow suspended in a buoyant peaty mat. Typha angustifolia can grow in deeper water compared to Typha latifolia, although both species reach maximum growth at a water depth of 50 cm. Typha often occurs in pure stands, and can colonize areas recently exposed by either natural or human causes. Lythrum salicaria, an exotic species from Europe, has become a common associate of many eastern Typha marshes. In the Southeast, this alliance is widespread and currently representative of a wide variety of mixed marshes with no clear dominants. Vegetation in this alliance may be natural or semi-natural and includes mixed stands of the nominal species, as well as essentially monospecific stands of Typha latifolia. These monospecific stands occur especially in artificial wetlands, such as borrow pits or ponds. This alliance occurs on hydric soils in wetlands, ditches, ponds, lakes, and rivers, as well as on shorelines and streambanks. Inundation is commonly 3-6 dm (1-2 feet) in depth. These marshes have hydric soils and are flooded with water levels ranging from several centimeters to more than 1 m for a significant part of the growing season. Occurrences may display areas of open water, but emergent vegetation dominates (80% cover). Seasonal flooding during winter and spring or flooding during heavy rains help maintain these marshes by causing water exchange which replenishes freshwater and circulates nutrients and organic debris. Soils which support this community can be mineral or organic but are saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part. Vegetative diversity and density is highly variable in response to water depth, water chemistry, and natural forces.
Comments: It has been suggested that mixed emergent marshes tend to occur on harder pond, lake, or river bottoms and are less likely to contain a peaty mat with its diverse mixture of forbs (MNNHP 1993). Alliances that describe marshes dominated by mixed emergents other than cattails and the associates listed above include the V.A.5.N.l Phragmites australis Semipermanently Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1431), the V.A.5.N.l Schoenoplectus acutus - (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) Semipermanently Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1443), the V.A.5.N.l Schoenoplectus americanus Semipermanently Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1432), and the V.A.5.N.l Zizania (aquatica, palustris) Semipermanently Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1441). In shallow flooded conditions this alliance grades into the V.A.5.N.k Typha spp. - (Schoenoplectus spp., Juncus spp.) Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1394), as well as V.A.5.N.k Schoenoplectus fluviatilis Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1387). Typha latifolia can hybridize with Typha angustifolia, and the hybrid, Typha X glauca, may be more invasive of disturbed areas than the parent species. In the West, some studies have classified marshes dominated by Typha domingensis as phases of Typha latifolia marshes. This alliance now includes wetland communities dominated by Typha latifolia, often in disturbed or sedimented situations. The concept and distribution of this alliance in the Southeast needs reassessment. Many of the presettlement occurrences of this alliance have been drained and converted to cropland or destroyed by siltation, which greatly accelerates the natural successional process from shallow inundation to moist soil. Lythrum salicaria is an aggressive exotic species that threatens this vegetation type in Canada, the Northeast, and more recently in the Midwest.
Range: This alliance is found in virtually every state in the United States and is likely to be found in most Canadian provinces. In the southeastern United States, it is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: AL AR AZ BC CA CO CT DE FL? GA IA ID IL IN KS KY LA MA MB MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK ON OR PA QC RI SC SD TN TX UT VA VT WA WI WV WY
TNC Ecoregions: 10:C, 11:C, 12:C, 17:C, 19:C, 20:C, 25:C, 26:C, 27:C, 2:C, 31:C, 32:C, 33:C, 34:C, 35:C, 36:C, 37:C, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 41:C, 42:P, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:P, 51:P, 52:C, 53:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C, 6:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:C??, 212Ab:C??, 212Ba:C??, 212Bb:C??, 212Ca:CC?, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Db:CCC, 212Dc:CC?, 212Ea:CCC, 212Ec:CCP, 212Ed:CCP, 212Ee:CCP, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 212Ha:CCP, 212Hb:CCP, 212He:CCC, 212Hh:CCP, 212Hi:CCP, 212Hj:CCC, 212Hk:CCC, 212Hl:CCC, 212Hm:CCP, 212Hn:CCP, 212Ho:CCC, 212Hp:CCP, 212Hq:CCP, 212Hr:CCP, 212Hs:CCP, 212Ht:CCC, 212Hu:CCC, 212Hv:CCC, 212Hw:CCC, 212Hx:CCC, 212Hy:CCP, 212Ia:CCC, 212Ib:CCP, 212Ja:CCC, 212Jb:CCP, 212Jc:CCP, 212Jf:CCP, 212Jj:CCP, 212Jk:CCP, 212Jl:CCP, 212Jm:CCP, 212Jn:CCC, 212Jo:CCP, 212Jr:CCC, 212Ka:CCP, 212Kb:CCC, 212La:CPP, 212Lb:CPP, 212Lc:CPP, 212Ld:CPP, 212Ma:CPP, 212Mb:CPP, 212Na:CCP, 212Nb:CCP, 212Nc:CCC, 212Nd:CCP, 212Oa:CCC, 212Ob:CCC, 212Pa:CCC, 212Pb:CCC, 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CC?, 221Ac:CC?, 221Ad:CC?, 221Ae:CCP, 221Af:CC?, 221Ag:CC?, 221Ah:CC?, 221Ai:CC?, 221Aj:CC?, 221Ak:CC?, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CC?, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:C??, 221Db:C??, 221Dc:C??, 221Ea:CC?, 221Eb:CC?, 221Ec:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:C??, 221Fb:C??, 221H:CC, 221Ja:CC?, 221Jc:CC?, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222Am:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222D:CC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Eg:CCP, 222Eh:CCP, 222F:CC, 222Ge:CCC, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Ia:CCC, 222Ib:CCP, 222Ic:CC?, 222Id:CC?, 222Ie:CCP, 222If:CCC, 222Ja:CCC, 222Jc:CCC, 222Je:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jh:CCC, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Kd:CCC, 222Ke:CCC, 222Kf:CCC, 222Kg:CCC, 222Kj:CCC, 222Lc:CCC, 222Mb:CCC, 222Mc:CCC, 222Md:CCC, 222Me:CCC, 222Na:CCC, 222Q:CC, 231Aa:C??, 231Ae:C??, 231Af:C??, 231Ak:C??, 231Al:C??, 231Am:C??, 231An:C??, 231Ao:C??, 231Ap:C??, 231C:CC, 231E:CC, 231Fb:CCC, 231Ga:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 231Gc:CCC, 232Aa:C??, 232Ac:C??, 232Ad:C??, 232Bc:C??, 232Bd:C??, 232Br:C??, 232Ce:CCC, 232Ch:CC?, 232Cj:CC?, 234Ac:PP?, 242A:CC, 251Aa:CCC, 251Ab:CCC, 251Ba:CCC, 251Bb:CCC, 251Bd:CCC, 251Be:CCC, 251Cb:CCC, 251Cc:CCC, 251Cd:CC?, 251Cf:CCC, 251Cg:CCC, 251Ch:CCC, 251Cm:CCC, 251Cp:CCC, 251Dc:CCC, 251Dg:CCC, 251Ea:CCC, 251Eb:CCC, 251Ed:CCC, 251F:CC, 255Aa:CCC, 255C:CC, 255Da:CCC, 255Dc:CCC, 261A:CC, 262A:CC, 263A:CC, 311A:CC, 331C:CC, 331F:CP, 331H:CC, 331I:CC, 332A:CP, 332B:C?, 332C:CC, 332D:CP, 332E:CC, 341C:CC, 342:C, M212Aa:CP?, M212Ab:CP?, M212Ac:CP?, M212Ad:CP?, M212Ba:CP?, M212Bb:CP?, M212Ca:CP?, M212Cb:CPP, M212Cc:CP?, M212Cd:CP?, M212Da:CC?, M212Db:CC?, M212Dc:CC?, M212Ea:CCC, M212Eb:CCC, M212Fa:C??, M212Fb:C??, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bc:CCC, M221Bd:CCC, M221Be:CCC, M221Bf:CCC, M221Ca:C??, M221Cb:C??, M221Cc:C??, M221Cd:C??, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCP, M221Dd:CCP, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC, M261E:CC, M331F:CC, M331I:CC, M333C:CC, M334A:CC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); NPS (Acadia, Badlands, Fort Laramie, Isle Royale, Scotts Bluff, Theodore Roosevelt, Voyageurs, Wind Cave, Yosemite); USFS (Black Hills, Daniel Boone, Kisatchie, Oconee?, Ouachita, Ozark, Pisgah, Talladega?, Tuskegee?); USFWS (Anahuac, Brazoria, Lacreek, Little River, Ouray, San Bernard)
Synonymy: Cattail Marsh, in part (Foti 1994b); Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) herbaceous alliance (Hoagland 1998a); Typha latifolia herbaceous alliance (Hoagland 2000); P5A4bII2a. Typha latifolia (Foti et al. 1994); L5D2aI2a. Typha latifolia (Foti et al. 1994); Typha latifolia Habitat Type (Hansen et al. 1995); Cattail Series, in part (Sawyer and Keeler-Wolf 1995); Cat-tail marsh (Fike 1999); Robust Emergent Marsh, in part (Smith 1991)
References: Anderson 1982, Apfelbaum 1985, Bundy et al. 1996, Bunin 1985, Christy 1973, Eggers and Reed 1987, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fike 1999, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Grace and Wetzel 1981, Great Plains Flora Association 1986, Hansen et al. 1991, Hansen et al. 1995, Hoagland 1998a, Hoagland 2000, Jones and Walford 1995, Kittel et al. 1996, Kittel et al. 1999a, Komarkova 1976, Komarkova 1986, Kovalchik 1993, Lindauer 1978, Lindauer and Christy 1972, MNNHP 1993, Masek 1979, McEachern 1979, Mitsch and Gosselink 1993, Mohlenbrock 1959, Muldavin et al. 1993b, Muldavin et al. 2000a, Padgett et al. 1989, Sawyer and Keeler-Wolf 1995, Segadas-Vianna 1951, Simkins 1931, Smith 1991, TNC 1995b, Tolstead 1942, Wharton 1978, Youngblood et al. 1985a
Authors: MCS, MOD. M.S. REID, MP, Midwest Identifier: A.1436
TYPHA (ANGUSTIFOLIA, LATIFOLIA) - (SCHOENOPLECTUS SPP.) EASTERN HERBACEOUS VEGETATION (Narrowleaf Cattail, Broadleaf Cattail) - (Clubrush species) Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation
Eastern Cattail Marsh G5 (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Eastern Emergent Marshes (480-20; 18.104.22.168)
Concept: These tall emergent marshes are common throughout the northeastern United States and adjacent Canadian provinces. They occur in permanently flooded basins, often part of a larger wetland mosaic and associated with lakes, ponds, or slow-moving streams. The substrate is muck over mineral soil. Lacustrine cattail marshes typically have a muck-bottom zone bordering the shoreline, where cattails are rooted in the bottom substrate, and a floating mat zone, where the roots grow suspended in a buoyant peaty mat. Tall graminoids dominate the vegetation; scattered shrubs are often present (usually totaling less than 25% cover), and are frequently shorter than the graminoids. Trees are absent. Bryophyte cover varies, and is rarely extensive; bryophytes are mostly confined to the hummocks. Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, or their hybrid Typha X glauca dominate, either alone or in combination with other tall emergent marsh species. Associated species vary widely; sedges such as Carex aquatilis, Carex lurida, Carex rostrata, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Scirpus cyperinus, and bulrushes such as Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus) and Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus) occur, along with patchy grasses such as Calamagrostis canadensis. Broad-leaved herbs include Thelypteris palustris, Asclepias incarnata, Calla palustris, Impatiens capensis, Sagittaria latifolia, Scutellaria lateriflora, Sparganium eurycarpum, and Verbena hastata. Floating aquatics, such as Lemna minor, may be common in deeper zones. Shrub species vary across the geographic range of this type; in the northern part of its range, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, and Spiraea alba are common. The invasive exotic plants Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites australis may be abundant in parts of some occurrences. This association is distinguished from other northeastern freshwater marshes by the strong dominance of Typha spp.
Comments: Typha angustifolia can grow in deeper water compared to Typha latifolia, although both species reach maximum growth at a water depth of 50 cm (Grace and Wetzel 1981). Typha often occurs in pure stands and can colonize areas recently exposed by either natural or human causes.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD:S?, ME:S5, NC:S?, NH:S4?, NJ:S5, NY:S5, PA:S?, RI:S?, VA:S?, VT:S4, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 48:C, 52:C, 58:P, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Db:CCC, 212Fa:CCC, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCC, 212Gb:CCC, 221Ae:CCP, 221Al:CCC, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 222:C, 231:C, M212A:CP, M212B:CP, M212C:CP, M212D:CC, M212Ea:CCC, M212Eb:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bc:CCC, M221Bd:CCC, M221Be:CCC, M221Bf:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCP, M221Dd:CCP
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia)
Synonymy: Robust Emergent Marsh (Breden 1989), Cattail marsh (CAP pers. comm. 1998), Southern New England nutrient-poor streamside/lakeside marsh (Rawinski 1984), Southern New England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh (Rawinski 1984), Cattail Marsh (Thompson 1996), Palustrine Narrow-leaved Persistent Emergent Wetland, Permanently Flooded (PEM5H) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Cowardin et al. 1979, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002, Grace and Wetzel 1981, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Northern Appalachian Ecology Working Group 2000, Rawinski 1984, Sperduto 2000b, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: S.C. Gawler, ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006153
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
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