Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance, which is found in the eastern and southeastern United States, inhabits seasonally flooded marshes or emergent zones of upland depression ponds. The vegetation is dominated by Scirpus cyperinus, or at least with substantial cover of this species. The habitat of this alliance may have a pronounced seasonal fluctuation in water level, becoming saturated to ponded in the winter and often drying completely in the summer. The vegetation is typically dominated by patches or zones of Scirpus cyperinus; other species present may include Carex spp., Dichanthelium spp., Dulichium arundinaceum, Glyceria spp., Juncus spp., Leersia spp., Panicum rigidulum, Rhynchospora spp., and Thelypteris palustris, as well as other species of Scirpus including Scirpus microcarpus (= Scirpus rubrotinctus) and Scirpus atrovirens. The vegetation may consist of monospecific clumps of the component species, either scattered in the marsh or around the pond margin. Mats of Sphagnum mosses may be prominent in some examples (e.g., Sphagnum lescurii, Sphagnum pylaesii, Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum palustre, and Sphagnum recurvum. Some examples may have scattered woody plants, including shrubs and small trees such as Acer rubrum, Alnus serrulata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Rosa palustris, and Nyssa sylvatica. To the north, Vaccinium corymbosum is a typical associate, while Hibiscus moscheutos, Itea virginica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, and Quercus phellos occur more frequently in the southern portion of the range. Sparsely distributed shrubs in montane examples may include Vaccinium spp. and Leucothoe racemosa. The floristics and physiognomic expression may vary with context and management. In a burned or mowed context, examples of this vegetation type may grade down into other wetland herbaceous types, but in a more forested context may grade into upland depression forests.
Range: This alliance is documented from the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina, the Interior Low Plateau of Tennessee and other states, the East Gulf Coastal Plain, Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain, Lower New England, the North Atlantic Coast, and from the Chesapeake Bay Lowlands (Delmarva Peninsula of Virginia, Chincoteague NWR). It could occur in adjacent provinces (e.g., Central Appalachians, High Allegheny Plateau, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, South Atlantic, and Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain).
States/Provinces: AL AR? CT DE FL? GA IN KY LA? MA MD? ME MS? NC NH NJ NY PA RI SC? TN VA VT WV
TNC Ecoregions: 42:P, 43:C, 44:C, 50:P, 51:C, 52:P, 53:C, 56:P, 57:P, 58:C, 59:C, 60:?, 61:C, 62:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221H:PP, 221J:PP, 222Cf:CCP, 222Cg:CCP, 222Eb:CCC, 222Eg:CCP, 222Eh:CCP, 231A:CP, 231Bc:CCC, 232B:CC, 232C:CP, 232D:CP, 234A:PP, M221Dc:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); USFS (Chattahoochee?, Oconee?, Pisgah, Talladega, Tuskegee?); USFWS (Chincoteague)
Synonymy: IIE1g. Interior Vernal Pool Complex, in part (Allard 1990); Upland Pool, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Scirpus cyperinus-Dulichium Pond (Newell and Peet 1995); Shallow emergent marsh (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Allard 1990, Cowardin et al. 1979, Newell and Peet 1995, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Weakley and Schafale 1994
Authors: ECS, MOD. ECS/SCS, MP, Southeast Identifier: A.1386
SCIRPUS CYPERINUS SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Woolgrass Bulrush Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Marshes (490-20; n/a)
Concept: Seasonally flooded marshes dominated or characterized by Scirpus cyperinus. Composition is variable. Associates include Glyceria spp., Thelypteris palustris, as well as other species of Scirpus including Scirpus microcarpus (= Scirpus rubrotinctus) and Scirpus atrovirens.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD?, ME:S5, NH:S?,S?, NJ:S?, NY:S5, PA:S?, RI:S?, VA:S?, VT:S4, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 57:?, 58:C, 60:?, 61:C, 62:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232:C
Federal Lands: USFWS (Chincoteague)
Synonymy: Shallow emergent marsh (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Breden et al. 2001, Cowardin et al. 1979, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002
Authors: ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006349
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
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This Page Up-dated on April 27, 2010