Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
V. HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Stands occur along slow streams and near inlets and outlets of lakes or ponds and may be inundated with water during floods. These wetlands generally contain little or no Sphagnum and can be the result of beaver-caused flooding of once more sphagnous wetlands. The ground may be flooded in the spring or after heavy rains, but it typically lies just above the permanent water table. Soils are either a raw sedge peat or a muck comprised of decomposed peat.
Comments: Curtis (1959) discusses a number of differential species that in Wisconsin may distinguish Southern Sedge Meadow (Carex stricta-dominated) from Northern Sedge Meadow. Carex stricta meadows are usually more moist than wet prairies and drier than shallow marshes, such as those dominated by Carex lacustris.
Range: This alliance is found in Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota (?), and Wisconsin; and in Canada in Ontario.
States/Provinces: CT DE IA IL IN MA MD ME MI MN ND NH NJ NY ON PA RI VT WI WV
TNC Ecoregions: 26:C, 35:C, 36:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 59:C, 61:C, 62:?, 63:C, 64:P
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:C??, 212Ab:C??, 212Ba:CC?, 212Bb:CCC, 212Ca:CCC, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Db:CC?, 212Dc:CCC, 212Ea:CP?, 212Eb:CP?, 212Ec:CPP, 212Ed:CPP, 212Fa:C??, 212Fb:C??, 212Fc:C??, 212Ga:CPP, 212Gb:CP?, 212Hb:CCC, 212Hl:CCC, 212Hm:CCP, 212Hn:CCP, 212Ho:CCP, 212Hp:CCP, 212Hq:CCP, 212Hr:CCP, 212Hs:CCP, 212Ht:CCP, 212Hu:CCP, 212Hv:CCC, 212Hw:CCP, 212Hx:CCP, 212Hy:CCC, 212Ib:CPP, 212Ja:CCP, 212Jb:CCP, 212Jc:CCP, 212Je:CCP, 212Jf:CCC, 212Jj:CCP, 212Jk:CCC, 212Jl:CCP, 212Jm:CCC, 212Ka:CPP, 212Mb:CPP, 212Na:CPP, 212Nb:CPP, 212Nc:CPP, 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CC?, 221Ac:CC?, 221Ad:CC?, 221Ae:CC?, 221Af:CC?, 221Ag:CC?, 221Ah:CC?, 221Ai:CCC, 221Aj:CC?, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CC?, 221Ba:C??, 221Bb:C??, 221Bc:C??, 221Bd:C??, 221Da:C??, 221Dc:C??, 221Ea:C??, 221Fa:C??, 222Ha:CPP, 222Hb:CPP, 222Ia:C??, 222Ib:C??, 222Ic:C??, 222Id:C??, 222Ie:C??, 222If:C??, 222Ja:CCP, 222Jb:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jh:CCC, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Ka:CCC, 222Kb:CCC, 222Kd:CCC, 222Ke:CCC, 222Kf:CCC, 222Kg:CCC, 222Kh:CCC, 222Ki:CCC, 222Kj:CCC, 222Lb:CCC, 222Lc:CCC, 222Le:CCC, 222Lf:CCC, 222Me:CCC, 232Aa:???, 232Ad:???, 232Bc:???, 232Bd:???, 232Br:???, 232Ch:???, 251Aa:CCC, 251Ab:CCC, 251Bb:CCC, 251Bd:CCC, 251Ca:CCC, 251Cc:CCC, 251Cf:CCC, 251Ch:CCC, 251Dc:CCC, 251Dd:CCP, 251Dg:CCC, 251Dh:CCP, M212Aa:CC?, M212Ab:CC?, M212Ac:CCC, M212Ad:CC?, M212Ae:CCC, M212Ba:CP?, M212Bb:CP?, M212Ca:CP?, M212Cb:CPP, M212Cc:CP?, M212Cd:CP?, M212Da:CC?, M212Db:CC?, M212Dc:CC?, M212Ea:C??, M212Eb:C??, M212Fa:C??, M212Fb:C??, M221Aa:CC?, M221Ab:CC?, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bc:CC?, M221Bd:CCC, M221Be:CC?, M221Ca:C??, M221Cb:C??
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia)
Synonymy: Tussock sedge marsh (Fike 1999); Graminoid Marsh, in part (Smith 1991); Southern Sedge Meadow (Sytsma and Pippen 1981b)
References: Curtis 1959, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fike 1999, Nelson and Anderson 1983, Smith 1991, Sytsma and Pippen 1981b
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY/K.D. PATTERS, RW, Midwest Identifier: A.1397
CAREX STRICTA - CAREX VESICARIA SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
Tussock Sedge - Inflated Sedge Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation
Eastern Tussock Sedge Meadow G? (00-08-29)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Marshes (490-20; n/a)
Concept: These tussock sedge meadows are distributed across the northeastern United States. They occur in seasonally flooded basins or on stream or lake margins. The substrate is peat or muck of variable depth overlying mineral soil. Standing water may be present only at the beginning of, or through much of, the growing season depending on the site and the year's precipitation; even when the water drops, the soils remain saturated. Microtopography is characterized by large tussocks, particularly when the hydroperiod is extended. The physiognomy is strongly herbaceous, or in some cases herbs mixed with shrubs (up to 25% shrub cover); trees are absent. Bryophyte cover is usually sparse, but may occasionally reach over 50%. Carex stricta, in its tussock form, is the usual dominant. Carex vesicaria, Carex utriculata, and Calamagrostis canadensis may also be locally abundant. Associated graminoids include Carex canescens, Carex comosa, Carex scoparia, Carex stipata, Carex vulpinoidea, Glyceria canadensis, Dulichium arundinaceum, Leersia oryzoides, and Scirpus cyperinus; forbs and ferns include Asclepias incarnata, Thelypteris palustris, Eupatorium maculatum, Campanula aparinoides, Osmunda regalis, Comarum palustre (= Potentilla palustris), Lysimachia terrestris, Angelica atropurpurea, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Lycopus americanus, Galium obtusum, and others. Lythrum salicaria may be invasive in some settings. Shrub associates vary with geography. In the northern part of the range, Alnus incana, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Spiraea alba are often present. Bryophytes, where present, include Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum girgensohnii, Sphagnum palustre, Drepanocladus aduncus, and others. This association is differentiated from other wet meadows by the strong dominance of Carex stricta.
Range: This tussock sedge meadow is found in northern New England, the Adirondack Mountains, and parts of the Appalachians.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD:S?, ME:S3, NH:S?,S?, NJ:S?, NY:S4, PA:S?, RI:S?, VT:S4, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 59:C, 61:C, 62:?, 63:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Bb:CCC, 212Ca:CCC, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Dc:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 232Aa:???, M212Ac:CCC, M212Ae:CCC, M212B:CP, M212C:CP, M212D:CC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ba:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bd:CCP
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia)
Synonymy: Coastal Plain Intermittent Pond (Breden 1989) B, Tussock sedge meadow (NAP pers. comm. 1998), Carex stricta wet meadow (CAP pers. comm. 1998), Southern New England nutrient-poor streamside/lakeside marsh (Rawinski 1984), Southern New England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh (Rawinski 1984), Sedge Meadow (Thompson 1996), Palustrine Persistent Emergent Wetland (PEM1) (Cowardin et al. 1979)
References: Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Cowardin et al. 1979, Curtis 1959, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Gawler 2002, Metzler and Barrett 2001, NAP pers. comm. 1998, Northern Appalachian Ecology Working Group 2000, Rawinski 1984, Sperduto 2000b, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: S.C. Gawler, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006412
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010