Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes maritime scrub communities typically dominated by Iva frutescens or Baccharis halimifolia or both, growing in association with salt marshes. These communities occur primarily in estuarine margin situations, especially on the sound sides of barrier islands. Characteristically, these communities form an ecotone between salt marsh and upland vegetation or in areas within the salt marsh having slightly higher elevations and lower salinity levels than the surrounding marsh. Storm-induced disturbance causes periodic die-back of the shrubs restricting the extent of their spread. Characteristic species include Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens, Rosa carolina, Spartina patens, and Panicum virgatum.
Range: This alliance is found in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana (?), Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: AL CT DE FL GA LA MA MD MS NC NJ NY RI SC TX VA
TNC Ecoregions: 31:C, 53:C, 55:?, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212P:PP, 221Aa:CCC, 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ae:CCP, 221Aj:CC?, 221Ak:CCC, 221Dc:CPP, 231Fb:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CC?, 232Bb:CC?, 232Bc:CCP, 232Bd:CCP, 232Br:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ce:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Eb:CCC, 255Dc:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island, Fire Island, Fort Pulaski); USFS (Croatan); USFWS (Anahuac, Aransas, Big Boggy, Bon Secour, Brazoria, Chincoteague, Matagorda Island, McFaddin, San Bernard)
Synonymy: Tidal Marsh, in part (FNAI 1992a); Salt Shrub, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); shrub succession community, in part (Higgins et al. 1971); Salt marsh community, in part (Hill 1986); swamp thicket, in part (Klotz 1986); salt marsh and upper border (Barry 1980); salt grass - marsh elder savanna (Martin 1959b); saltbush zone (Boule 1979); Estuarine scrub-shrub wetland (Tiner 1985b); Salt bush - salt meadow marsh (Daiber et al. 1976); Iva frutescens-Baccharis halimifolia (Good 1965); Iva frutescens (Klemas et al. 1973); Baccharis halimifolia (Klemas et al. 1973); Salt shrub (Reschke 1990); Salt marsh complex, marsh-upland border (Breden 1989); Estuarine Intertidal: Salt Marsh (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Au 1974, Barry 1980, Boule 1979, Breden 1989, Daiber et al. 1976, FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Good 1965, Higgins et al. 1971, Hill 1986, Hillestad et al. 1975, Hosier 1975, Klemas et al. 1973, Klotz 1986, Martin 1959b, Nelson 1986, Reschke 1990, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Tiner 1977, Tiner 1985b, Wharton 1978, Wolfe 1990
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, MOD. A.S. WE, JT, East Identifier: A.1023
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA - IVA FRUTESCENS - MORELLA CERIFERA - (ILEX VOMITORIA) SHRUBLAND
Groundsel-tree - Maritime Marsh-elder - Wax-myrtle - (Yaupon) Shrubland
Coastal Salt Shrub Thicket G4? (97-08-11)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Tidal Shrublands (202-20; n/a)
Concept: This shrubland, dominated by the nominal species, occurs in slightly elevated areas within salt flats and salt marshes as well as in marsh edges throughout much of the East Gulf, South Atlantic, and Mid-Atlantic coastal plains. This community is usually best developed at the upper limit of non-storm tidal inundation, on natural levees deposited by above-normal tides. The most common species are typically Baccharis halimifolia, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Iva frutescens ssp. frutescens, Yucca gloriosa, Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola, Lycium carolinianum, Baccharis angustifolia, and Ilex vomitoria. Other species which may be present include Borrichia frutescens, Fimbristylis castanea, Limonium carolinianum, and Solidago sempervirens.
Comments: An example documented in South Carolina on Old Island had an emergent layer of Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola, over Iva frutescens and Borrichia frutescens. The herbaceous layer consisted of Cynanchum angustifolium, Juncus roemerianus, and Fimbristylis castanea. This type is not known to occur in VA (G.P. Fleming and P. Coulling pers. comm.).
States/Provinces: AL:S?, FL:S4, GA:S?, LA:S?, MD:S?, MS:S?, NC:S4, SC:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 53:C, 55:?, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Bz:CCC, 232Ce:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCP, 232Dc:CCC, 232Eb:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island, Fort Pulaski); USFS (Croatan); USFWS (Bon Secour)
Synonymy: Salt Shrub (Inland High Subtype) (Schafale 2000)
References: Coulling pers. comm., FNAI 1992a, Fleming pers. comm., Lea 2002b, Schafale 2000, Wolfe 1990
Authors: SCS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL003920
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA - IVA FRUTESCENS / SPARTINA PATENS SHRUBLAND
Groundsel-tree - Maritime Marsh-elder / Saltmeadow Cordgrass Shrubland
Mid-Atlantic Maritime Salt Shrub G5 (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Atlantic and Gulf Coast Tidal Shrublands (202-20; n/a)
Concept: This maritime shrubland of the mid-Atlantic states occurs in association with salt marshes. In its natural condition, this community forms the ecotone between the high salt marsh and adjacent upland vegetation. It also occurs in patches on areas of slightly higher elevation within the salt marsh or on spoil mounds adjacent to ditches. Baccharis halimifolia and Iva frutescens are the most characteristic and dominant shrub species. Other associated shrubs include Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica) in the northern portion of the range, while Borrichia frutescens, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) and Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola are frequent associates in the southern part of the range. Spartina patens is a characteristic and usually abundant grass; other common herbaceous associates include Panicum virgatum, Distichlis spicata, Hibiscus moscheutos, Toxicodendron radicans, Teucrium canadense, Festuca rubra, Limonium carolinianum, Atriplex prostrata, Sabatia stellaris, Sabatia dodecandra, and in the north Hierochloe odorata and Juncus gerardii, and in the south, Setaria parviflora. This community often forms an abrupt transition from salt marsh to upland reflecting the relatively higher elevation and less frequent tidal flooding. Shrub cover in this situation tends to be fairly dense, and herbs are sparsely distributed. Where the topographic relief is more gradual, the community is characterized by an open and relatively evenly spaced shrub stratum with a well-developed herbaceous layer, reflecting an intergrading of this community with the adjacent high salt marsh. Storm-induced disturbance causes periodic die-back of the shrubs restricting the extent of their spread.
Comments: As shrub cover decreases, the community often grades into high salt marsh associations like Panicum virgatum - Spartina patens Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL006150) or Spartina patens-dominated high marsh associations. Southern analogs of this salt marsh-upland border shrubland include Baccharis halimifolia - Iva frutescens - Morella cerifera - (Ilex vomitoria) Shrubland (CEGL003920) along the southern Atlantic coast from the Carolinas to Florida to Louisiana and Iva frutescens ssp. frutescens - Baccharis halimifolia / Spartina spartinae Shrubland (CEGL004616) along the Texas Gulf Coast. This community is differentiated from Morella cerifera - Baccharis halimifolia / Spartina patens Shrubland (CEGL003809) by the presence of Iva frutescens and by the influence of tidal flooding. According to G.P. Fleming and P. Coulling (pers. comm.), "This type represents the only salt scrub community type for which we have data in Virginia. Documented occurrences (including two from Chincoteague NWR) all contain Morella as a low-cover associate, but Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata are characteristically co-dominant with Iva and Baccharis. Perhaps Chris Lea can clarify the distribution of 3920 on the Delmarva Peninsula. I have wondered whether we need to define separate tidal and supratidal salt scrub types, since the former often lack Baccharis altogether, but we don't have sufficient data to support splitting this group at this time."/p>
Range: This association ranges from Massachusetts to South Carolina.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S5, MA:S3, MD:S?, NC:S4, NJ:S2S3, NY:S4, RI:S?, SC:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 56:P, 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Aa:CC?, 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ak:CC?, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CC?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Synonymy: Salt Shrub (High Subtype) (Schafale 2000), Shrub succession community (Higgins et al. 1971) B. Assateague Island., Salt marsh community (Hill 1986) B. Assateague Island., Swamp thicket (Klotz 1986) B. Virginia., Salt marsh and upper border (Barry 1980) =. South Carolina., Salt grass - marsh elder savanna (Martin 1959b) =. New Jersey., Saltbush zone (Boule 1979) =. Virginia., Estuarine scrub-shrub wetland (Tiner 1985a) =. Delaware., Estuarine scrub-shrub wetland (Tiner 1985b) =. New Jersey., Salt bush - salt meadow marsh (Daiber et al. 1976) =. Delaware., Iva frutescens-Baccharis halimifolia (Good 1965), Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia (Klemas et al. 1973) =. Delaware., Salt Marsh Complex, marsh-upland border (Breden 1989) =. New Jersey., Salt shrub (Reschke 1990) =. New York., Salt Marsh (Rawinski 1984). formerly Southern New England and Gulf of Maine Salt Marshes.
References: Barry 1980, Berdine 1998, Boule 1979, Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Coulling pers. comm., Daiber et al. 1976, Edinger et al. 2002, Enser 1999, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming pers. comm., Good 1965, Higgins et al. 1971, Hill 1986, Klemas et al. 1973, Klotz 1986, Martin 1959b, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Rawinski 1984, Reschke 1990, Schafale 2000, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001, TNC 1995c, Tiner 1985a, Tiner 1985b
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL003921
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report III. Shrubland
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010