Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Betula nigra thickets on sandy, gravelly or cobbly deposits, often forming on river islands where vegetation is frequently battered by floodwaters and thereby maintained in a shrubby condition. Associates include Prunus spp. and Salix spp., as well as stunted individuals of Platanus occidentalis. This alliance occurs in the Allegheny Plateau, Central Appalachians, and Hudson Valley.
Range: This alliance is found in Maryland, Virginia (?), West Virginia, and others. Occurs in Maryland at Chain Bridge on Potomac River and elsewhere.
States/Provinces: MD NJ NY PA VA? WV
TNC Ecoregions: 49:C, 50:P, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fa:CCP, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCP, 212Ga:CCP, 212Gb:CCP, 221Ak:CP?, 221Am:CPP, 221Ba:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:CPP, 221Db:CPP, 221Ea:CCP, 221Ja:C??, 221Jc:C??, 231Aa:CPP, 231Ae:CPP, 231Af:CPP, 231Ak:CPP, 231Al:CPP, 231Am:CPP, 231An:CPP, 231Ao:CPP, 231Ap:CPP, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCP, 232Br:CPP, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CCP, M221Bb:CCP, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCC, M221Ca:CC?, M221Cb:CCP, M221Cc:CC?, M221Cd:CCP, M221Da:CCC
Synonymy: River birch - sycamore floodplain scrub (Fike 1999); River Gravel Community (Smith 1991)
References: Fike 1999, Smith 1991
Authors: ECS, MP, East Identifier: A.951
BETULA NIGRA - SALIX INTERIOR SHRUBLAND
River Birch - Sandbar Willow Shrubland
Birch - Willow Riverbank Shrubland G4G5 (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Riverfront and Levee Forests and Shrublands (422-30; 188.8.131.52)
Concept: This early-successional shrub community of riverbank floodplain and river gravel bars and islands occurs in the High Allegheny Plateau, Central Appalachians and Lower New England. It is subject to periodic flooding and ice-scour and occurs on sand, gravel or cobble deposits. It is dominated by stunted trees (less than 5 m tall) of Acer saccharinum, Acer rubrum, Platanus occidentalis, Betula nigra, Acer negundo, Prunus spp., and Ulmus americana. Betula nigra is characteristic and often dominant. Associates include Cornus amomum, Salix exigua, Salix sericea, Alnus serrulata, and Physocarpus opulifolius. Characteristic herbs include Polygonum virginianum, Arisaema dracontium, Justicia americana, and Lobelia cardinalis. Exotics such as Polygonum cuspidatum are a frequent problem.
Comments: Salix interior is listed as "rare" in Maryland and Virginia (Kartesz 1999).
Range: Found in the High Allegheny Plateau and Central Appalachian ecoregions from West Virginia, Maryland (and possibly Virginia) north to New York. Also attributed to the Western Allegheny Plateau.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, NJ:S?, NY:S5, PA:S?, VA?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 49:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCP, 212Gb:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221D:C?, 221E:CC, 231:C, 232Ac:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CCP, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCC, M221C:CC, M221Da:CCC
Synonymy: River birch-willow thickets (CAP pers. comm. 1998)
References: CAP pers. comm. 1998, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Kartesz 1999
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL003896
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report III. Shrubland
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