Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Woodlands of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains dominated by Pinus taeda. In the Atlantic Coastal Plain, natural examples of this alliance include maritime woodlands of barrier islands that occur on foredunes. Trees in these maritime woodlands often have multiple trunks and spreading branches. Herbaceous cover is usually low. Canopy associates include Quercus phellos, Quercus falcata, and Quercus virginiana. One rare community in this alliance occurs on swamp islands protected from fire in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Associated species include Quercus hemisphaerica, Osmanthus americanus var. americanus, Ilex glabra, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Persea palustris, and Quercus nigra. Other associations, including some vegetation of Louisiana, result from thinning of plantations, or disturbance by fire of Pinus taeda forests. One other semi-natural example occurs on military reservations and is at least in part the result of fires set by military training. It may occur both within or outside of the natural range of Pinus palustris. In the former case, it is present where Pinus palustris has failed to regenerate.
Range: This alliance is found in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Texas, Maryland, and Virginia, and possibly Oklahoma (?), South Carolina (?), Delaware (?), and elsewhere.
States/Provinces: AL DE FL GA MD NC SC VA
TNC Ecoregions: 40:P, 41:C, 43:P, 52:C, 53:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 231B:PP, 231Ef:PP?, 231Eg:PP?, 231Ei:PP?, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ba:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Fa:CCC, 234Ah:???
Federal Lands: DOD (Fort A.P. Hill, Fort Benning, Fort Pickett); NPS (Assateague Island); USFS (Angelina, Apalachicola, Davy Crockett, Kisatchie, Sabine NF, Sam Houston, Tuskegee?); USFWS (St. Marks?)
Synonymy: Loblolly Pine: 81, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Eyre 1980
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.526
PINUS TAEDA / HUDSONIA TOMENTOSA WOODLAND
Loblolly Pine / Woolly Beach-heather Woodland
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Maritime Stable Dune Forests and Woodlands (240-50; n/a)
Concept: This maritime woodland occurs on sand dunes of barrier islands in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Soils in this community are sandy and rapidly drained. This community often occurs directly adjacent to actively shifting foredunes and is exposed to salt spray, winds, and storms. The community also occurs on unstable sands of protected backdunes. In the denser woodlands, more pine duff accumulates, and herb diversity and cover are generally higher. Where woodlands are more open and trees sparse, growing conditions are harsh, less duff accumulates, and vast areas of exposed white sand are characteristic. Trees are generally characterized by low spreading branches and multiple trunks. A shrub layer is lacking; herbaceous cover is usually low. Pinus taeda dominates the canopy, but hardwoods such as Quercus falcata, Quercus phellos, and Ilex opaca are frequent. Younger, smaller pines make up a sparse subcanopy. Tall shrubs are also sparse, although an occasional Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Pinus taeda sapling, or Vaccinium corymbosum can be found. Sparse low shrubs of Hudsonia tomentosa are more common. Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, and Toxicodendron radicans are typical vines. Herbs are sparse, yet much varied. Andropogon virginicus is commonly present. The typical pattern of herb distribution is on dry open sand, in direct sunlight. Here, small patches of Dichanthelium acuminatum, Dichanthelium scoparium, Andropogon virginicus, Eupatorium rotundifolium, Erigeron sp., Euthamia caroliniana (= Euthamia tenuifolia), Solidago sempervirens, Aristida tuberculosa, Polygonella articulata, and Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (= Gnaphalium obtusifolium) are typically mixed with scattered Hudsonia tomentosa and Smilax rotundifolia. This community ranges from Delaware south along the coast to Virginia.
Comments: This community gained greater extent in some areas of Virginia and North Carolina barrier beaches following logging (Schafale and Weakley 1990, Higgins et al. 1971, Bratton and Davison 1987).
Range: This maritime woodland occurs on sand dunes of barrier islands in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.
States/Provinces: DE:S1?, MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ac:CCP, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ch:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Assateague Island)
Synonymy: Pine woodland (Higgins et al. 1971) B. Assateague Island., Woodland community (Hill 1986) B. Assateague Island.
References: Berdine 1998, Bowman 2000, Bratton and Davison 1987, Clampitt 1991, Fleming et al. 2001, Higgins et al. 1971, Hill 1986, Klotz 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990, TNC 1995c
Authors: A. Berdine, ECS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL006052
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report II. Woodland
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010