Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Comments: Occurrences are threatened by the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic insect pest.
Range: Forests in this alliance include acidic cove forests and mesic successional forests, mostly of the southern and central Appalachians, but also occurring in the Cumberland Plateau and Cumberland Mountains of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama, the Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia, and isolated occurrences in the Interior Low Plateau of Indiana and Tennessee. This alliance is found in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Indiana, Ohio, and West Virginia.
States/Provinces: AL GA IN KY MD NC OH PA SC TN VA WV
TNC Ecoregions: 44:C, 45:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 58:C, 59:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212:C, 221Db:CPP, 221Ea:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCC, 221Ee:CCC, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCC, 221Fc:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 222De:C??, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ek:CCC, 222Em:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ap:CCP, 231Ca:CCC, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ca:CPP, M221Cb:CPP, M221Cc:CPP, M221Ce:CPP, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M231Ad:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Carl Sandburg Home, Great Smoky Mountains, Mammoth Cave); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, George Washington, Jefferson, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)
Synonymy: Acidic Cove Forest, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Hemlock-Mixed Mesophytic HR (Pyne 1994); Yellow-Poplar - Eastern Hemlock: 58, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Cooper and Hardin 1970, Eyre 1980, Fike 1999, Gettman 1974, Golden 1974, Malter 1977, McLeod 1988, Newell and Peet 1995, Newell et al. 1997, Patterson 1994, Pyne 1994, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Winstead and Nicely 1976
Authors: D. TAYLOR, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.413
TSUGA CANADENSIS - FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - ACER SACCHARUM / (HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA, KALMIA LATIFOLIA) FOREST
Eastern Hemlock - American Beech - Sugar Maple / (Witch-hazel, Mountain Laurel) Forest
East-central Hemlock Hardwood Forest G3? (96-10-03)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Hemlock-Hardwood Forests (420-25; 220.127.116.11)
Concept: This community is found in parts of the Interior Low Plateau and the Western Allegheny Plateau and possibly the Central Appalachians of Virginia in the northeastern and east-central United States. Stands occur on dry-mesic to mesic slopes, sometimes in steep-sloped valleys. Soils are typically acid, silty to sandy loams, with a sandstone or shale parent material. The overstory is dominated by Tsuga canadensis, Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, and Fagus grandifolia. Rarely does any one of these comprise more than 50% of the mature trees in a stand. Other trees are common in the canopy, among them Betula alleghaniensis, Betula lenta, Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus strobus, Prunus serotina, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Tilia americana. The shrub layer, occasionally sparse, contains Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, and Viburnum acerifolium, as well as ericaceous shrubs, including Kalmia latifolia (except in the northern portion of the Western Allegheny Plateau) and Rhododendron maximum. The ground layer contains the ferns Botrychium virginianum, Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris marginalis, Polystichum acrostichoides, and the herbs Arisaema triphyllum, Maianthemum canadense, Mitchella repens, Podophyllum peltatum, Viola blanda, and Viola rotundifolia, among others. Three subtypes are possible: (1) steep-walled sandstone gorges and talus, where Hydrangea arborescens, Kalmia latifolia, and Dryopteris marginalis may be indicative; (2) more gently sloped valleys, with shrubs such as Hamamelis virginiana, Viburnum acerifolium; and (3) rolling lakeplain ridges. The Kentucky examples, which are mesic rather than dry-mesic, may lack Acer saccharum, Maianthemum canadense, and several other species, and may contain Magnolia spp., (e.g., Magnolia tripetala, Magnolia acuminata, and Magnolia macrophylla) (J. Campbell pers. comm. 2000). In addition, Betula lenta (widespread on Appalachian Plateaus) is replaced by Betula alleghaniensis (var. macrolepis?) in western Kentucky and southern Indiana.
Comments: This type appears to vary from pure evergreen to mixed evergreen-deciduous. Black and Mack (1976) suggest that this type contains more temperate species, such as several Dryopteris spp. (Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris marginalis) and Viburnum acerifolium when compared to more northern/boreal types, such as Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - (Acer saccharum) Great Lakes Forest (CEGL005042), which contains Clintonia borealis, Coptis trifolia, and Cornus canadensis. One of their subtypes, the steep-walled sandstone gorges and talus, where Hydrangea arborescens, Kalmia latifolia, and Dryopteris marginalis may be indicative, has some conceptual and environmental overlap with Tsuga canadensis - (Fagus grandifolia, Tilia americana var. heterophylla) / Magnolia tripetala Forest (CEGL008407) of the southern Cumberland Plateau and Central Appalachians.
Range: This community is found in parts of the Interior Low Plateau and the Western Allegheny Plateau of the northeastern and east-central United States, ranging from Pennsylvania and Ohio, south to Maryland and West Virginia, and westward to a few stands in Indiana, and possibly Kentucky. Stands in Indiana are not part of the continuous range of Tsuga canadensis.
States/Provinces: IN:S?, KY:S?, MD:S?, OH:S3,S?, PA:S?, VA?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 44:C, 45:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:?, 59:?
USFS Ecoregions: 212:C, 221Ea:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCC, 221Ee:CCC, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCC, 221Fc:CCC, 222De:C??, 222Ek:CCC, 222Em:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Mammoth Cave)
References: Anderson 1982, Black and Mack 1976, Campbell pers. comm., Fike 1999, Fleming pers. comm., Homoya pers. comm.
Authors: D. Faber-Langendoen, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL005043
TSUGA CANADENSIS / ILEX OPACA / HIERACIUM VENOSUM FOREST
Eastern Hemlock / American Holly / Rattlesnake-weed Forest
Coastal Plain Eastern Hemlock Forest G? (00-04-12)
Concept: This Coastal Plain hemlock ravine forest is known from the Wicomoco terrace of the eastern shore of Maryland and on the western shore in Calvert County. It occurs in shallow ravines with Tsuga canadensis occurring with Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus prinus, Quercus velutina, and Quercus alba. The shrub layer is characterized by Ilex opaca, Lindera benzoin, Aralia spinosa, Kalmia latifolia, Viburnum acerifolium, and Vaccinium pallidum. The herbaceous layer is comprised of Mitchella repens, Uvularia sessilifolia, Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, Hieracium venosum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Botrychium virginianum, Lycopodium complanatum, and Lycopodium obscurum.
Range: This Coastal Plain hemlock ravine forest is known from the Wicomoco terrace of the eastern shore of Maryland and on the western shore in Calvert County.
TNC Ecoregions: 52:P, 61:P
USFS Ecoregions: 221Db:PPP, 231Ap:PPP
Synonymy: Eastern Hemlock: 23 (Eyre 1980) B. in part
References: Eyre 1980, Shreve et al. 1910, Waggoner 1973
Authors: ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006600
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.C. Mixed evergreen-deciduous forest
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