Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance occurs from the western Great Lakes to the northeastern United States and south to the southern Appalachian Mountains. The overstory is a mix of evergreen and deciduous trees which form a moderately closed to closed canopy. Pinus strobus is a consistent constituent of the canopy and usually occurs as supercanopy trees, as well. Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Quercus velutina are also important canopy trees along with minor amounts of Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana (in Wisconsin), Populus tremuloides (in the northern parts of this alliance's range), Quercus ellipsoidalis (in the northwest), and Tsuga canadensis, and Quercus prinus (in the southeast). Subcanopy trees can include Carpinus caroliniana, Cornus florida, Hamamelis virginiana, Halesia tetraptera, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Nyssa sylvatica. The shrub layer is often well-developed with Gaylussacia spp., Kalmia latifolia, Rubus spp., and Vaccinium spp. most commonly dominant. Other shrubs can include Corylus americana, Gaultheria procumbens, Rhododendron maximum, and Sassafras albidum, and in the Ridge and Valley, Viburnum rafinesquianum and Viburnum prunifolium. The herb stratum is sparse to moderate, but can be quite species rich, especially in the Southern Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley, where typical species include Ageratina altissima, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Brachyelytrum erectum, Carex communis, Carex platyphylla, Carex woodii, Carex pensylvanica, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium nudiflorum, Eupatorium purpureum, Galax urceolata, Galium latifolium, Galium circaezans, Geranium maculatum, Goodyera pubescens, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, Hieracium venosum, Houstonia purpurea, Maianthemum racemosum, Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Monotropa uniflora, Poa cuspidata, Polygonatum biflorum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Trillium catesbaei, and Viola hastata. Stands of this alliance are dry-mesic to mesic forests found on acidic, relatively nutrient-poor, sandy loam to sandy soil on a variety of topographic positions. In the upper Midwest, most stands are on flat to rolling topography on outwash plains or moraines. In the Southern Blue Ridge, they occur on mid to lower slopes in the lower elevations (below 3000 feet) on protected ridges, and in disturbed bottoms. In the Ridge and Valley of Virginia, these forests are found on protected ravines, with rocky soils developed over shale, sandstone, or other sedimentary rock.
Comments: In the Appalachians, these forests are typically transitional between the more mesic, protected cove forests and the more xeric, exposed pine - oak forests with Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea. Stands of this alliance are mid-successional but long-lasting and require repeated disturbances to regenerate (MNNHP 1993). Isolated stands of Pinus strobus with Quercus alba and Quercus velutina and scattered Fagus grandifolia over Kalmia latifolia are found on steep slopes of the Western Highland Rim of (Cheatham and Dickson counties; Chester 1980). Similar isolated stands with Pinus strobus are found in the vicinity of Clifty, Kentucky. Their status is unclear as well. These occur on sandstones of the Dripping Springs escarpment (Logan, Muhlenburg, Todd counties). "These are along Clifty Creek Gorge and Rocky Creek/Lake Malone State Park area; no botanical person has reported from here for a long time. The environment is not necessarily more xeric." (Julian Campbell, TNC-KYFO).
Range: This alliance is found in northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, northern Illinois, Indiana, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, northern Georgia, western North Carolina, western South Carolina, and eastern Tennessee (?). It is also found in Canada.
States/Provinces: CT GA IL? IN? MA MD ME MI MN NC NH NJ? NY ON PA QC? RI SC TN? VA? VT WI WV
TNC Ecoregions: 44:P, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:P, 51:C, 52:P, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Aa:CPP, 212Ab:CPP, 212Ba:CPP, 212Bb:CPP, 212Ca:CCP, 212Cb:CCC, 212Da:CCC, 212Db:CCC, 212Dc:CCC, 212Eb:CCC, 212Ec:CCP, 212Ed:CCP, 212Fa:CCP, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCC, 212Ga:CCP, 212Gb:CCP, 212Hb:CCP, 212He:CCC, 212Hi:CCP, 212Hj:CCC, 212Hl:CCC, 212Hm:CCP, 212Ho:CCC, 212Hp:CCC, 212Hq:CCC, 212Hr:CCP, 212Hs:CCP, 212Ht:CCP, 212Hu:CCC, 212Hv:CCC, 212Hw:CCC, 212Hx:CCP, 212Hy:CCC, 212Ja:CCP, 212Jb:CCC, 212Jc:CCP, 212Jf:CCP, 212Jj:CCP, 212Jl:CCP, 212Jm:CCC, 212Jn:CCP, 212Jr:CCC, 212Ka:CCP, 212Kb:CCC, 212La:CPP, 212Lb:CP?, 212Mb:CPP, 212Na:CPP, 212Nb:CPP, 212Nc:CPP, 212Oa:CCC, 212Oc:CCC, 221Aa:CCC, 221Ab:CCP, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCP, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Aj:CCP, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CCP, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CCP, 221Bc:CCC, 221Bd:CCC, 221Db:CPP, 221Ea:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Ic:CCP, 222Id:CCP, 222If:CCP, 222Ja:CCC, 222Jc:CCC, 222Jd:CCC, 222Je:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Ka:CCC, 222Kh:CCC, 222Lc:CCC, 222Lf:CCC, 222Mc:CCC, 222Md:CCC, 222Me:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, M212Ac:CC?, M212Ad:CCC, M212Ae:CCP, M212Ag:CCC, M212Ba:CCP, M212Bb:CCC, M212Bc:CCC, M212Bd:CCC, M212Ca:CCP, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CCC, M212Cd:CCP, M212Db:CCP, M212Dc:CCC, M212De:CCC, M212Ea:CCC, M212Eb:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Ba:CC?, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bc:CC?, M221Bd:CCC, M221Be:CCC, M221Bf:CCC, M221Ca:CC?, M221Cb:CCP, M221Da:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Acadia, Great Smoky Mountains?); USFS (Chattahoochee, Cherokee?, George Washington, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)
Synonymy: Hardwood - White Pine Forest, in part (Ambrose 1990a); Dry-Mesic Oak--Hickory Forest, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Eastern White Pine: 21, in part (Eyre 1980); White Pine - Chestnut Oak: 51, in part (Eyre 1980); White Pine - Northern Red Oak - Red Maple: 20 (Eyre 1980); Pinus strobus - Pinus resinosa forest (No. 36), in part (Vankat 1990); Northern Dry-mesic Forest, in part (Curtis 1959); Coastal Forest/Woodland (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Dry white pine (hemlock) - oak forest (Fike 1999); Dry - Mesic Acidic Central Forest (Smith 1991)
References: Ambrose 1990a, Chester and Scott 1980, Curtis 1959, Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fike 1999, MNNHP 1993, Rawinski et al. 1996, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Smith 1991, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Vankat 1990
Authors: S. SIMON 8-94, MOD. A.S., RW, East Identifier: A.401
PINUS STROBUS - QUERCUS RUBRA - LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA FOREST
Eastern White Pine - Northern Red Oak - Tuliptree Forest
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northeastern Dry Pine Forests and Woodlands (490-10; n/a)
Concept: This mixed white pine - oak forest occurs in the southern portion of the central Appalachian region. The forest is dry to mesic and occurs on acidic and nutrient-poor sand or sandy loam. It occurs at lower elevations, generally below 3000 feet, on middle to lower slopes and in ravines or on sheltered ridges of shale, sandstone or other sedimentary rock. The canopy is dominated by Pinus strobus, which may also form a distinct emergent tree layer. Other dominant trees are Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Quercus velutina. Less abundant canopy associates include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus tremuloides, Tsuga canadensis, Quercus prinus. The subcanopy is of variable cover and may include Carpinus caroliniana, Cornus florida, Hamamelis virginiana, Halesia tetraptera, Oxydendrum arboreum, or Nyssa sylvatica. The shrub layer is well developed, often characterized by ericaceous species such as Gaylussacia spp., Kalmia latifolia, and Vaccinium spp., as well as other shrubs such as Rubus spp., Corylus americana, Gaultheria procumbens, Sassafras albidum, Viburnum rafinesquianum, and Viburnum prunifolium. The herbaceous layer is of sparse to moderately dense cover and is characterized by Ageratina altissima, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Brachyelytrum erectum, Carex communis, Carex platyphylla, Carex woodii, Carex pensylvanica, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium nudiflorum, Eupatorium purpureum, Galax urceolata, Galium latifolium, Galium circaezans, Geranium maculatum, Goodyera pubescens, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, Hieracium venosum, Houstonia purpurea, Maianthemum racemosum, Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Monotropa uniflora, Poa cuspidata, Polygonatum biflorum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Trillium catesbaei, and Viola hastata. This association is differentiated from a related type that ranges from the central Appalachians to New England by the presence of the following species Liriodendron tulipifera, Halesia tetraptera, Viburnum rafinesquianum, Eupatorium purpureum, Galax urceolata, Galium circaezans, Geranium maculatum, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, and Trillium catesbaei.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, VA?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: M221Aa:CCC, M221Bd:CCC, M221Be:CCC, M221C:CC, M221Da:C??
Synonymy: White pine-oak-tuliptree dry forest (CAP pers. comm. 1998)
References: CAP pers. comm. 1998
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006304
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.C. Mixed evergreen-deciduous forest
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010