Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Floodplain forests, with seasonally flooded hydrology, dominated by Taxodium distichum and usually one or more of the following: Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa biflora, and/or Nyssa ogeche. Characteristic woody species include Quercus lyrata, Carya aquatica, Acer rubrum, Planera aquatica, Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus laurifolia, Populus heterophylla, Ilex decidua, and others. The subcanopy, shrub and herbaceous layers of these communities range from sparse to moderate. Herbaceous and vine species that may be present include Leersia lenticularis, Justicia ovata, Carex intumescens, Boehmeria cylindrica, Onoclea sensibilis, Commelina communis, Hydrocotyle verticillata, Ludwigia palustris, Carex bromoides, Saururus cernuus, Pilea pumila, Phanopyrum gymnocarpon (= Panicum gymnocarpon), Campsis radicans, Smilax tamnoides (= Smilax hispida), Ampelopsis arborea, Mikania scandens, and others. Forests in this alliance occur in the Coastal Plain from Virginia south to Florida, west to eastern Texas, and in the Mississippi River alluvial basin north to southern Illinois.
Comments: Compare to alliances in I.B.2.N.f with semi-permanently flooded hydrology where surface water persists through the growing season in most years. This alliance with seasonal flooding has flooding of long duration, but the water level is below the surface by the end of the growing season. Several communities in Louisiana contain Taxodium distichum with various hardwoods (Quercus nigra and Magnolia virginiana; Celtis laevigata and Acer rubrum or Acer negundo). Assessment is needed regarding their alliance placement.
Range: Forests in this alliance occur in the Coastal Plain from Delaware south to Florida and west to eastern Texas and in the Mississippi River alluvial basin north to Kentucky.
States/Provinces: AL AR DE FL GA? KY LA MD MS NC SC TN TX VA
TNC Ecoregions: 40:P, 41:C, 42:C, 43:?, 53:C, 55:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 231B:C?, 231E:CP, 231Gc:CCC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Ba:CCC, 232Bb:CCC, 232Bc:CCC, 232Bd:CCC, 232Be:CCC, 232Bf:CCC, 232Bg:CCC, 232Bh:CCC, 232Bi:CCC, 232Bj:CCC, 232Bk:CCC, 232Bl:CCC, 232Bm:CCC, 232Bn:CCC, 232Bo:CCC, 232Bp:CCC, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bs:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bu:CCC, 232Bv:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCC, 232Ca:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Cc:CCC, 232Cd:CCC, 232Cf:CCC, 232Cg:CCC, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCC, 232Cj:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Fa:CCC, 232Fb:CCC, 232Fc:CCC, 232Fd:CCC, 232Fe:CCC, 234Aa:CCC, 234Ac:CCC, 234Ad:CCC, 234Ae:CCC, 234Af:CCC, 234Ag:CCC, 234Ah:CCC, 234Ai:CCC, 234Aj:CCC, 234Ak:CCC, 234Al:CCC, 234Am:CCC, 234An:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Camp Lejeune, Camp MacKall); DOE (Savannah River Site); NPS (Congaree Swamp); USFS (Angelina, Apalachicola, Davy Crockett, De Soto, Delta, Kisatchie, Ocala, Osceola, Sabine NF, Sam Houston, Tuskegee); USFWS (Okefenokee?)
Synonymy: IIA4b. Bald Cypress - Water Tupelo Swamp, in part (Allard 1990); Cypress - Tupelo Swamp (Foti 1994b); Cypress swamp, in part (Evans 1991); Floodplain swamp, in part (FNAI 1992a); Cypress/Cypress-Tupelo Swamp, in part (Smith 1996a); Bald Cypress - Water Tupelo Swamp (Wieland 1994b); Palustrine Taxodium distichum-Nyssa spp. Series, in part (Pyne 1994); Baldcypress-Water Tupelo Series, in part (Diamond 1993); P1B3dI1b. Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica (Foti et al. 1994); Baldcypress - Tupelo: 102, in part (Eyre 1980); Baldcypress / Ceratophyllum Semi-Permanently Flooded Swamps, in part (Turner et al. 1999)
References: Allard 1990, Conner and Day 1976, Conner et al. 1981, Diamond 1993, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1992a, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Jones et al. 1981b, Martin and Smith 1991, Pyne 1994, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Schneider et al. 1989, Smith 1996a, Turner et al. 1999, Wharton 1978, Wharton et al. 1982, Whipple et al. 1981, Wieland 1994b
Authors: A.S. WEAKLEY 6-95, MOD. A, MP, Southeast Identifier: A.337
TAXODIUM DISTICHUM - NYSSA BIFLORA CHESAPEAKE BAY FOREST
Bald-cypress - Swamp Blackgum Chesapeake Bay Forest
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain
Concept: These forests comprise cypress - swamp blackgum in channels of blackwater rivers in the Chesapeake Bay region, characterized by a canopy dominated by Taxodium distichum and Nyssa biflora, in association with Fraxinus pennsylvanica or Fraxinus profunda. Shrubs tend to be sparse, but common species include Clethra alnifolia, Viburnum dentatum, Cornus amomum, Itea virginica, Cephalanthus occidentalis, and Rhododendron viscosum. The herb layer of these forests is variable, supporting such species as Saururus cernuus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Woodwardia areolata, Boehmeria cylindrica, Dulichium arundinaceum, Lobelia cardinalis, Impatiens capensis, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Carex folliculata, Carex atlantica, Carex crinita, Carex intumescens, Carex lonchocarpa, Carex seorsa, and other Carex spp., Orontium aquaticum, and Peltandra virginica. Soils of this community are generally organic, and waters usually acidic. This vegetation may be tidally influenced and is occasionally affected by storm tides in Delaware and Maryland. In Virginia, this vegetation is almost exclusively tidal.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MD:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CC?, 232C:CC
References: Beaven and Oosting 1939, Dennis 1986, Fleming 1978, Fleming et al. 2001, McAvoy and Clancy 1993, Stalter 1981
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006214
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010