Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Dry oak forests with canopies characteristically dominated by Quercus falcata, typically with some combination of Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, and Quercus coccinea. The relative dominance of these four species is variable between associations across the range of this alliance. Quercus alba may be present (although more likely in the understory than in the canopy), but it will rarely contribute to the dominance. Within its range, some examples have strong dominance by Quercus coccinea. In the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Quercus nigra may be the other oak sharing dominance with Quercus falcata. Vaccinium spp. are common in the understory of some stands (including successional ones on subxeric, intermediate sites). Some typical occurrences are found on well-drained sandy loam or clay loam soils that are often, although not always, shallow. Some other examples are found on sites with unusual soil conditions, such as hardpans with retarded drainage. These typically occur in upland flats and have been called xerohydric because they occasionally will have standing water in the winter due to a perched water table, but are droughty by the end of the growing season. The range of forests of this alliance is throughout the East Gulf Coastal Plain, West Gulf Coastal Plain, Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Carolina Sandhills, low mountains, and Cumberland and Interior Low plateaus. The overall distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Ouachita Mountains needs assessment.
Comments: This alliance is found in central and western Tennessee and Kentucky, rather than the montane portions of these states. There is a Quercus coccinea-dominated association in Tennessee (S. Major pers. comm.).
Range: This alliance is found from Oklahoma, Kentucky, and North Carolina, south to Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, in the East Gulf Coastal Plain, Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Cumberland Plateau, Carolina Sandhills, low mountains, Interior Low Plateau, Ozarks, and Ouachitas. Its distribution and extent in the Atlantic Coastal Plain needs assessment. It is also reported from the Chesapeake Bay Region and the Northern Piedmont.
States/Provinces: AL AR DE GA IN? KY LA MD MS NC NJ OK SC TN TX
TNC Ecoregions: 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 41:C, 43:C, 44:C, 50:C, 52:P, 53:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Hc:CPP, 221Ja:CCP, 221Jb:CCC, 222Cb:CCC, 222Cc:CCP, 222Ce:CCP, 222Da:CCC, 222Dc:CC?, 222Dg:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ej:CCC, 222El:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ae:CC?, 231Cd:CCC, 231Ea:CCC, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ba:CCP, 232Bb:CCP, 232Bh:CCP, 232Bi:CC?, 232Bk:CCP, 232Bl:CCP, 232Bm:CCP, 232Bn:CCP, 232Bo:CCP, 232Bp:CCP, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCP, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bu:CCP, 232Bv:CC?, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CCP, 232Ca:CC?, 232Ce:CC?, 232Ci:CCC, 232Fa:CCP, 232Fb:CCP, 232Fe:CCC, 234Aa:CCP, 234Ab:CCC, 234Ac:CCC, 234Ae:CCC, 234Ag:CCP, 234Ah:CC?, 234Am:CC?, 234An:CCP, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCP, M231Ab:CCP, M231Ac:CCP, M231Ad:CCP
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); NPS (Mammoth Cave, Shiloh); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Angelina, Bankhead, Bienville, Cherokee?, Conecuh, Davy Crockett, De Soto, Holly Springs, Homochitto, Kisatchie?, Ouachita, Sabine NF, St. Francis, Sam Houston, Talladega, Tombigbee, Tuskegee)
Synonymy: Acidic xeric forest, in part (Evans 1991); Xerohydric flatwoods, in part (Evans 1991); Dry Oak--Hickory Forest, Coastal Plain Sand Variant (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Quercus falcata forest alliance (Hoagland 1998a); Southern Red Oak RV (Pyne 1994); Post Oak-Black Hickory Series (Diamond 1993)
References: Andreu and Tukman 1995, Diamond 1993, Evans 1991, Hoagland 1998a, Major pers. comm., Pyne 1994, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Wharton 1945
Authors: M. PYNE/A.S. WEAKLEY 2-96, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.243
QUERCUS FALCATA - QUERCUS PHELLOS / ILEX OPACA FOREST
Southern Red Oak - Willow Oak / American Holly Forest
Mesic Coastal Plain Oak Forest G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Acid Hardwood Slope Forests (307-10; n/a)
Concept: This community is a mesic oak forest of the central Atlantic Coastal Plain. In general, this vegetation borders wetlands and occurs on sand in areas with a high water table. Canopy dominants include Quercus falcata, Quercus phellos, Quercus alba, Quercus michauxii, with Liquidambar styraciflua and Acer rubrum common associates. Pines may be present, including Pinus rigida or Pinus echinata in New Jersey, or Pinus taeda in Delaware and Maryland. A subcanopy is often present with Ilex opaca, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Amelanchier canadensis. Gaylussacia frondosa forms a patchy shrub layer draped withSmilax rotundifolia, and the herb layer is sparse with species like Chasmanthium laxum, Osmunda regalis, and Mitchella repens.
Comments: This association is currently attributed to Delaware although no occurrences have been documented there.
Range: Currently described from New Jersey to Maryland.
States/Provinces: DE:S?, MD:S?, NJ:S2S3
TNC Ecoregions: 58:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCP, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Bz:CC?
Synonymy: Oak - southern hardwood "peri-hydric" forest (Windisch pers. comm.), Cape May lowland swamp (Breden 1989). in part
References: Berdine 1998, Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Windisch pers. comm.
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006390
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010