Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance is widely distributed in the eastern United States and portions of adjacent Canada and includes dry mesic to mesic upland oak forests dominated by Quercus alba and/or Quercus rubra, with or without Carya species. Stands are 15-25 m tall, with a closed, deciduous canopy. The shrub and herbaceous strata are typically well-developed. Quercus alba usually dominates the stands, either alone or in combination with Quercus rubra (especially on moister sites) and sometimes Quercus velutina (especially on drier sites). Some associations in this alliance are dominated by Quercus rubra, although Quercus alba is usually also a canopy component. Carya species (particularly Carya alba, Carya glabra or Carya ovata) are typically common either in the canopy or subcanopy. In the southeastern United States, this alliance covers dry-mesic forests of the Piedmont, low Appalachian Mountains, and the Cumberland and Interior Low Plateau, and mesic oak-hickory forests of the Blue Ridge and the interior highlands of the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains. Associated species include Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya alba, Fraxinus americana, Acer rubrum, Acer leucoderme, Cornus florida, Nyssa sylvatica, Ostrya virginiana, Calycanthus floridus, Pyrularia pubera, Tilia americana var. caroliniana, Oxydendrum arboreum, and others. This alliance is found throughout the midwestern United States on moderately rich, upland sites. Typical associates include Fraxinus americana, Ulmus americana, Tilia americana, Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, and more locally, Quercus macrocarpa and Quercus ellipsoidalis.
Stands are found on gentle to moderately steep slopes on uplands and on steep valley sides. The soils are moderately deep to deep and vary from silts to clays and loams. The parent material ranges from glaciated till to limestone, shale, sandstone and other bedrock types. In the midwestern United States, many stands are succeeding to types dominated by Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Acer rubrum, and other mesic tree associates. This succession may be delayed by fire and grazing. In the eastern and southeastern United States, Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, Acer rubrum, and other mesic associates often increase after disturbances, such as clearcutting or windstorms, especially in the absence of fire.
Range: This alliance ranges from Ontario, Canada, throughout the midwestern and eastern United States, south to the very northern edges of the Western and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plains.
States/Provinces: AL AR CT DE GA IA IL IN KS KY MA MD ME MI MN MO MS? NC NE NH NJ NY OH OK ON PA RI SC TN VA VT WI WV
TNC Ecoregions: 32:P, 35:C, 36:C, 37:C, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:?, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fb:CCP, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CC?, 212Ga:CC?, 212Gb:CC?, 212Ht:CPP, 212Hx:CPP, 212Jj:C??, 212Ka:CC?, 212Kb:CCC, 212Mb:C??, 212Na:CCP, 212Nb:CC?, 212Nc:CCC, 212Nd:CC?, 221Ad:CCP, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:CCC, 221Db:CCC, 221Dc:CCC, 221Ea:CCC, 221Eb:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCC, 221Ee:CCC, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCP, 221Fc:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221Hd:CCC, 221He:CCC, 221Ja:CCP, 221Jb:CCC, 222Aa:CCC, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ac:CCC, 222Ad:CCC, 222Ae:CCC, 222Af:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222Ah:CCC, 222Aj:CCC, 222Ak:CCC, 222Al:CCP, 222Am:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Ao:CCC, 222Ap:CCC, 222Aq:CCC, 222Cb:CCC, 222Cc:CCC, 222Cd:CCC, 222Ce:CCC, 222Cf:CCC, 222Cg:CCC, 222Ch:CCC, 222Da:CCP, 222Db:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222Dd:CCP, 222De:CCC, 222Df:CCC, 222Dg:CCP, 222Dh:CCC, 222Di:CCC, 222Dj:CCP, 222Ea:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CCC, 222Ed:CCC, 222Ee:CCC, 222Ef:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Eh:CCC, 222Ei:CCC, 222Ej:CCP, 222Ek:CCC, 222Em:CCC, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fa:CCP, 222Fb:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Fe:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 222Ga:CCC, 222Gb:CCC, 222Gc:CCC, 222Ha:CCC, 222Hb:CCC, 222Hf:CCC, 222Id:CCP, 222If:CCC, 222Ja:CCC, 222Jb:CCC, 222Jc:CCC, 222Jg:CCC, 222Jh:CCC, 222Ji:CCC, 222Jj:CCC, 222Ke:CCC, 222Kf:CCC, 222Kg:CCC, 222Kh:CCC, 222Kj:CCC, 222Lb:CCC, 222Lc:CCC, 222Le:CCC, 222Lf:CCC, 222Ma:CCC, 222Mb:CCC, 222Mc:CCC, 222Md:CCC, 222Me:CCC, 222Qb:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CCC, 231Ac:CCC, 231Ad:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ag:CCC, 231Ah:CCC, 231Ak:CCC, 231Al:CCC, 231Am:CCC, 231An:CCC, 231Ao:CCC, 231Ap:CCC, 231Ba:CCP, 231Bb:CCP, 231Bc:CCP, 231Bd:CCP, 231Be:CCC, 231Bg:CCP, 231Bh:CCP, 231Bk:CCP, 231Ca:CCC, 231Cb:CCC, 231Cc:CCC, 231Cd:CCC, 231Cf:CCC, 231Da:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, 231Dd:CCC, 231De:CCC, 231E:CC, 231Gb:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bq:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bv:CCC, 232Bx:CCC, 232Ca:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 234Ac:PPP, 251Aa:CCC, 251Ba:CCC, 251Be:CCC, 251Ca:CC?, 251Cb:CCC, 251Cc:CCC, 251Cd:CCC, 251Ce:CCC, 251Cf:CCC, 251Cg:CCC, 251Ch:CCC, 251Cj:CCC, 251Ck:CCC, 251Cn:CC?, 251Co:CC?, 251Cp:CCC, 251Cq:CCC, 251Dc:CCC, 251Dd:CCC, 251De:CCC, 251Df:CCC, 251Dh:CCP, 251Ea:CCC, M212Bd:CCC, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CCC, M212Ea:CC?, M212Eb:CC?, M221Aa:CCC, M221Bd:C??, M221Cd:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC, M231Ad:CCC
Federal Lands: COE (Dale Hollow?); DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); DOE (Oak Ridge); NPS (Carl Sandburg Home, Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Cowpens, Great Smoky Mountains, Guilford Courthouse, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Natchez Trace, Russell Cave, Shenandoah, Shiloh); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, George Washington, Jefferson, Land Between the Lakes, Mark Twain, Nantahala, Oconee, Ouachita, Ozark, Pisgah, St. Francis, Shawnee, Sumter, Talladega, Tuskegee?, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: IA6j. Interior Calcareous Oak - Hickory Forest, in part (Allard 1990); Mesic Oak - Hickory Forest, in part (Foti 1994b); Submesic broadleaf deciduous forest, in part (Ambrose 1990a); Oak - Chestnut - Hickory Forest, in part (Ambrose 1990a); Acidic mesophytic forest, in part (Evans 1991); Calcareous mesophytic forest, in part (Evans 1991); Dry-Mesic Oak--Hickory Forest (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Basic Oak--Hickory Forest, Mafic Substrate Variant, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Montane Oak--Hickory Forest, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Basic Oak - Hickory Forest (Nelson 1986); Permesotrophic Forest, in part (Rawinski 1992); Oak--Hickory Forest, in part (Nelson 1986); T1B4aIII. Quercus rubra - Quercus spp. (Foti et al. 1994); White Oak - Black Oak - Northern Red Oak: 52, in part (Eyre 1980); White Oak: 53, in part (Eyre 1980); Oak - Hickory Forest (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Andreu and Tukman 1995, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Fountain and Sweeney 1985, Fralish 1988b, Fralish et al. 1991, Golden 1979, Hoagland 1997, Jones 1988a, Jones 1988b, McLeod 1988, Monk et al. 1990, Nelson 1986, Oakley et al. 1995, Oosting 1942, Rawinski 1992, Robertson et al. 1984, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Wharton 1978
Authors: D.J. ALLARD/D. FABER-LANG, RW, Midwest Identifier: A.239
QUERCUS (ALBA, RUBRA, VELUTINA) / CORNUS FLORIDA / VIBURNUM ACERIFOLIUM FOREST
(White Oak, Northern Red Oak, Black Oak) / Flowering Dogwood / Mapleleaf Viburnum Forest
Dry Oak-Hickory Forest G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Acidic Upland Oak Forests (307-05; n/a)
Concept: This northeastern oak-hickory forest occurs on well-drained loamy sand of knolls and upper slopes. This vegetation is ecologically transitional between dry-rich oak-hickory forests of relatively high diversity and dry, acidic oak species-poor forests. Quercus alba and Quercus velutina are prominent in the canopy, with Quercus rubra also important on the New Jersey Coastal Plain and in New England, and Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea typical associates in the southern portion of the range. Typical hickory species include Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya alba (= Carya tomentosa), and Carya ovalis. Other canopy associates may include Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, Amelanchier arborea, Ostrya virginiana, and Fraxinus americana. At the northern range limit of this type, Pinus strobus and Betula lenta also occur as minor associates. Cornus florida is a characteristic understory tree. The shrub layer is characterized by Viburnum acerifolium, with other frequent associates including Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium corymbosum, Corylus cornuta, and Corylus americana. A dwarf-shrub layer may be present, characterized by Vaccinium pallidum and Gaylussacia baccata, with Vaccinium angustifolium occurring more frequently to the north. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex pensylvanica, Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa), Aralia nudicaulis, Hieracium venosum, Solidago bicolor, Desmodium glutinosum, Desmodium paniculatum, Melampyrum lineare, Chimaphila maculata, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Danthonia spicata, Aureolaria spp., and Helianthemum canadense.
Range: This association occurs from Maine to Virginia.
States/Provinces: CT:S?, DE:S?, MA:S4, MD:S?, ME:S3, NH:S?, NJ:S4S5, NY:S3, PA:S?, RI:S?, VA:S?, VT:S3
TNC Ecoregions: 60:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fb:CC?, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CC?, 212Ga:CC?, 212Gb:CC?, 221Ad:CCP, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCC, 221Ag:CCC, 221Ah:CCC, 221Ai:CCC, 221Ak:CCC, 221Al:CCC, 221Am:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CCC, 221Bd:CCC, 221Da:CCC, 221Db:CCC, 221Dc:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ac:CCP, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CC?, M212Bd:CCC, M212Cb:CCC, M212Cc:CCC, M212Ea:CC?, M212Eb:CC?
Synonymy: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovalis, glabra) / Viburnum acerifolium Forest (Patterson pers. comm.), Quercus montana - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovalis, glabra) / Viburnum acerifolium Forest (Fleming pers. comm.), Mesic Coastal Plain mixed oak forest (Breden 1989). in part, SNE mesic central hardwood forest on acidic till (Rawinski 1984), Mesic Transition Hardwood Forest (Mesic Oak-Hickory-Northern Hardwood Forest) (Thompson 1996)
References: Berdine 1998, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Damman 1977, Edinger et al. 2002, Enser 1999, Fike 1999, Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming pers. comm., Gawler 2002, Hunt 1997, MENHP 1991, McCoy and Fleming 2000, Metzler and Barrett 2001, Patterson pers. comm., Rawinski 1984, Sperduto 1997b, Swain and Kearsley 2001, Thompson 1996, Thompson and Sorensen 2000
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006336
QUERCUS ALBA - QUERCUS (RUBRA, COCCINEA) - CARYA (ALBA, GLABRA) / VACCINIUM PALLIDUM PIEDMONT DRY-MESIC FOREST
White Oak - (Northern Red Oak, Scarlet Oak) - (Mockernut Hickory, Pignut Hickory) / Hillside Blueberry Piedmont
Piedmont Dry-Mesic Oak - Hickory Forest
G5? (01-02-06)Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Dry-mesic Oak Forests and Woodlands (401-13; 18.104.22.168)
Concept: This forest is found on submesic to dry-mesic to subxeric upland sites of mid- to upper-slope position with northerly or easterly aspects, or mid to lower slopes with more southerly aspects. In drier landscapes, this type could occupy habitats considered relatively mesic (e.g., concave slopes, lower slopes, shallow ravines). These sites are described as dry to intermediate in soil moisture. The soils are acidic and nutrient-poor, being weathered from felsic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, or composed of unconsolidated sediments. Stands of this forest are closed to somewhat open, and are dominated by mixtures of oaks and hickories, with Quercus alba being most prevalent, along with Quercus rubra, Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Carya alba, Carya ovalis, and Carya glabra. The Carya spp. are common in this type, but often most abundant in the understory. In Virginia examples, Quercus prinus is inconstant but sometimes important. In addition, Pinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Acer rubrum may be common. Understory species include Acer rubrum, Cornus florida, Oxydendrum arboreum, Ilex opaca, and Nyssa sylvatica. Shrubs include Vaccinium stamineum, Vaccinium pallidum, Viburnum acerifolium, Viburnum rafinesquianum, and Euonymus americana. In Virginia, Vaccinium pallidum is the principal ericad of patchy low-shrub layers, and stands may contain Calycanthus floridus (G. Fleming pers. comm. 2001). The woody vines Vitis rotundifolia and Toxicodendron radicans often are present. Herbs are fairly sparse, with Hexastylis spp., Goodyera pubescens, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium nudiflorum, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Viola hastata, Tipularia discolor, and Hieracium venosum as some common components (Schafale and Weakley 1990). This association is less nutrient-rich than Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest (CEGL007237).
Range: This association is found in the Piedmont and northern Coastal Plain (Chesapeake Bay Lowlands Ecoregion) of Virginia, as well as south in the Piedmont to the Carolinas and possibly Georgia, as well as possibly in related areas of Maryland.
States/Provinces: GA?, MD?, NC:S5, SC:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 52:C, 58:C, 61:?
USFS Ecoregions: 221Db:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Bt:CC?, 232Bx:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Guilford Courthouse)
Synonymy: Oak - Chestnut - Hickory Forest (Ambrose 1990a) B, White oak - northern red oak - false Solomon's seal (Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Smilacina racemosa) community type (Jones 1988a), White oak - northern red oak - false Solomon's seal (Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Smilacina racemosa) community type (Jones 1988b), IA6i. Interior Upland Dry-Mesic Oak - Hickory Forest (Allard 1990) B. in part, Quercus alba - Quercus coccinea - Carya (glabra, alba) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest (Patterson pers. comm.)
References: Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming pers. comm., Jones 1988a, Jones 1988b, Nelson 1986, Patterson pers. comm., Schafale and Weakley 1990, Skeen et al. 1980
Authors: M.P. Schafale/G.P. Fleming, SCS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL008475
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010