Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes deciduous forests dominated by Liriodendron tulipifera, primarily in areas which were once clearcut, old fields, or cleared by fire or other natural disturbances. These non-wetland forests are also found along mesic stream terraces and on upland mountain benches. Forests in this alliance are abundant in the central and southern Appalachians, below 3000 feet (900 m) elevation, usually associated with disturbance and on the most productive sites, but also occur in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau. This alliance includes pure, often even-aged stands of Liriodendron tulipifera as well as forests with Liriodendron tulipifera associated with other species favored by canopy openings. Associated species vary with geographic location. Throughout most of the range of this alliance, Acer rubrum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Betula lenta, Acer saccharum, and Acer negundo are common components. In the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, Liquidambar styraciflua is a common associate. In the Appalachians, Halesia tetraptera, Tsuga canadensis, Tilia americana var. heterophylla (= Tilia heterophylla), Prunus serotina var. serotina, and Magnolia fraseri can be additional components. In the Ridge and Valley and Cumberland Plateau, additional species include Quercus rubra, Magnolia acuminata, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Pinus virginiana, Sassafras albidum, Pinus strobus, Carpinus caroliniana, Asimina triloba, and Staphylea trifolia. Herbaceous strata are not diverse and, in the southern Appalachians, this feature distinguishes these forests from rich cove forests in I.B.2.N.a Liriodendron tulipifera - Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum Forest Alliance (A.235). Vines can be abundant including Vitis spp., Smilax spp., Aristolochia macrophylla, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Forests in this alliance occur on middle to lower slopes, sheltered coves and gentle concave slopes, and river terraces over various soils and geologies. Vegetation of this alliance is uncommon in Louisiana.
Range: This alliance is found in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi (?), North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Forests in this alliance are abundant in the central and southern Appalachians, below 3000 feet (900 m) elevation, but also occur in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau.
States/Provinces: AL GA KY MD NC PA SC TN VA WV
TNC Ecoregions: 43:C, 44:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:P, 58:C, 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ha:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 221Jb:CCC, 222C:CC, 222D:CC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ed:CCP, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 231Aa:CCP, 231Ae:CCC, 231Bc:CCC, 231Cd:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, 232B:CC, 232D:CP, 234Ab:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning); NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway, Cowpens, Great Smoky Mountains, Guilford Courthouse, Harpers Ferry, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Rock Creek, Shenandoah, Shiloh); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Apalachicola, Bankhead, Bienville, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Conecuh, Daniel Boone, De Soto, George Washington, Holly Springs, Homochitto, Jefferson, Nantahala, Ocala, Oconee?, Osceola, Pisgah, St. Francis, Sumter, Talladega, Tombigbee, Tuskegee)
Synonymy: Yellow-Poplar: 57, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Andreu and Tukman 1995, Eyre 1980, Gallyoun et al. 1996, Golden 1974, Horn 1980, McGee and Hooper 1970, Phillips and Shure 1990, Schmalzer 1978, Thomas 1966
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.236
LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA - ACER (NEGUNDO, RUBRUM) / ASIMINA TRILOBA FOREST
Tuliptree - (Box-elder, Red Maple) / Common Pawpaw Forest
Successional Tuliptree / Pawpaw Forest G4G5 (01-04-19)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Semi-natural Wooded Uplands (900-40; 22.214.171.124)
Concept: This association includes successional wet to mesic forests occurring in bottoms and on low slopes of the Appalachians and Interior Low Plateau with Acer negundo and Liriodendron tulipifera each contributing 25-75% of the total canopy cover. In some examples, Acer rubrum may also contribute to the canopy cover. Asimina triloba is present in the subcanopy or shrub strata where it makes up 5-50% of the total cover. Liriodendron tulipifera may share dominance with Acer rubrum in the canopy of some examples. The exotic grass Microstegium vimineum often dominates the herbaceous layer. These stands are apparently successional following intensive timber removal and also occur on old pastures. This vegetation is probably extensive in the Ridge and Valley, Interior Low Plateaus, and related provinces. Related vegetation is possible in the Chesapeake Bay region.
Comments: This element may actually represent a combination of temporarily flooded (stands with Acer negundo) and upland (stands with Acer rubrum) components. Described from Tellico Pilot Project (Ridge and Valley of northeastern Monroe County, Tennessee; 31 stands sampled), where this forest occurs along intermittent streams draining into Tellico Lake and on slopes of intermittent to ephemeral draws on the higher reaches of these streams (Andreu and Tukman 1995). Species composition was found to vary between these two topographic situations. This type represents mesic forest succession on areas cleared prior to Tellico Lake creation in 1979.
Range: This type is found in the Appalachians and Interior Low Plateau from Maryland and Pennsylvania west and south to Kentucky and Tennessee.
States/Provinces: KY?, MD:S?, PA:S?, TN:S?, VA:S?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 44:C, 50:C, 58:?, 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Jb:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ed:CCP, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ad:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221D:C?
Federal Lands: NPS (Harpers Ferry); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Cherokee?)
References: Andreu and Tukman 1995, Fike 1999, Vanderhorst 2000b
Authors: SCS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL007184
LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA - QUERCUS RUBRA - MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA / CORNUS FLORIDA FOREST
Tuliptree - Northern Red Oak - Cucumber-tree / Flowering Dogwood Forest
Central Appalachian Rich Cove Forest (Tuliptree - Northern Red Oak - Cucumber-tree Type) G5? (01-06-21)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Mixed Mesophytic/Cove Forests (420-30; 126.96.36.199)
Concept: This Central Appalachian community type occurs throughout the Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley portion of the Virginia mountains north of the New River and may extend throughout the central Appalachian portions of West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Stands occupy mesic hollow sideslopes, ravines, and slope concavities at elevations from 240-800 m (800-2600 feet) and exceptionally to 1000 m (3300 feet). Underlying bedrock is variable and probably exerts less influence on vegetation than local soil conditions. Stands are associated both with sheltered sites on poor substrates, such as acidic sandstones, and with warmer, more exposed coves on fertile substrates. Vegetation consists largely of post-logging secondary forests with tall (>30 m), well-formed canopy trees. Liriodendron tulipifera is the characteristic, usually dominant canopy species in mixed stands with Magnolia acuminata, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Carya ovalis. Quercus prinus (= Quercus montana), Fraxinus americana, Betula lenta, Tilia americana (including both var. americana and var. heterophylla), Carya glabra, Carya alba, and Quercus alba are minor canopy associates. Understory tree layers are very open and contain young reproduction of the canopy species along with Cornus florida (often dominant) and Ostrya virginiana. Cornus florida, Viburnum acerifolium, and climbing or scrambling Parthenocissus quinquefolia are usually the most abundant species of a sparse shrub layer. The herb layer varies in density from open to moderately dense, but generally lacks the lush aspect of other communities in the Rich Cove and Slope Forests group.
Comments: Both in terms of floristics and soil fertility, this unit represents the least `rich' community type in the Rich Cove and Slope Forests group. Its classification and ecological interpretation are complicated by past logging, which in most situations has greatly favored the reproduction of the shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Magnolia acuminata. Yet, there does not seem to be a consistent or obvious successional pattern in most stands of the association. Potential successors might include several Quercus spp., Carya spp., and Tilia americana. Given the current dominance and longevity of Liriodendron tulipifera and its persistence even in mature cove hardwood stands, successional change in this association will be slow. Old Castanea dentata stumps and wood debris were recorded in some plots of this type. Although most forests of this association were cut long ago because of their accessibility and fine timber, a few small patches of old growth persist on the steep, hollowed slopes of Peters Mountain in Alleghany County (Fleming and Moorhead 2000). Based on an examination of these old stands, it appears that the original forest canopies on Peters Mountain were mixed associations of Quercus rubra, Quercus prinus (= Quercus montana), Castanea dentata, and Liriodendron tulipifera. The latter was probably able to maintain a position in these mixed forests because of its rapid growth and superior ability to colonize light gaps caused by downfalls (Busing 1995, Fowells 1965).
Range: This community type occurs throughout the Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley portion of the Virginia mountains north of the New River. Its potential range extends throughout the central Appalachian portions of West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.
States/Provinces: MD?, PA?, VA:S?, WV?
TNC Ecoregions: 59:C
USFS Ecoregions: M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCP, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCC
Federal Lands: USFS (George Washington, Jefferson)
Synonymy: Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus rubra - Magnolia acuminata / Cornus florida Forest (Fleming and Coulling 2001) =, Liriodendron tulipifera - Magnolia acuminata / Cornus florida / Osmunda claytoniana Forest (Fleming and Moorhead 2000), Liriodendron tulipifera / Cornus florida / Lindera benzoin / Cimicifuga racemosa Association, pro parte (Rawinski et al. 1996), Yellow-poplar - White Oak - Northern Red Oak: 59 (Eyre 1980) B, Yellow-poplar: 57 (Eyre 1980) B
References: Busing 1995, Eyre 1980, Fleming and Coulling 2001, Fleming and Moorhead 2000, Fleming et al. 2001, Fowells 1965, Rawinski et al. 1996
Authors: G. Fleming, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL008510
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010