Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: Forests in this alliance occur in non-montane or low-elevation montane mesic situations and are dominated by Fagus grandifolia typically with some combination of Quercus rubra and/or Quercus alba. Associated canopy and subcanopy species can include Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer saccharum, Magnolia tripetala, Magnolia acuminata (Ozarks), Tilia americana var. americana (Ozarks), Tilia americana var. heterophylla, Quercus muehlenbergii, Acer rubrum, Cornus florida, Ostrya virginiana, Aesculus sylvatica, and Ilex opaca. Some of these forests, particularly in the Piedmont of South Carolina, the southern Ridge and Valley of Alabama, or in Arkansas, may contain Acer barbatum instead of Acer saccharum. Shrubs in this alliance include Vaccinium stamineum, Viburnum rafinesquianum, Euonymus americana, and, in some occurrences, Kalmia latifolia. The herb layer can be relatively lush with such species as Polystichum acrostichoides, Galium circaezans, Hexastylis arifolia, Hexastylis minor, Desmodium nudiflorum, Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. umbilicatum, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Epifagus virginiana, Tiarella cordifolia var. collina, Trillium spp., Heuchera americana, Stellaria pubera, Podophyllum peltatum, Botrychium virginianum, and others present. These forests often occur on concave and sheltered landforms such as north-facing slopes, low slopes, high terraces along streams, and possibly other situations. The core concept of the range of this alliance includes areas inland from the Coastal Plain, as Quercus rubra is absent from large areas of the Coastal Plain (as in North Carolina). Forests in this alliance occur in the Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley, Piedmont and Interior Low Plateau, and on protected slopes and ravines in the Ozarks, central Ouachita Mountains, and Arkansas Valley.
Comments: The relationship between this alliance and I.B.2.N.a Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba Forest Alliance (A.228) needs to be clarified. There may be some problems with assignment of associations where Quercus rubra does, in fact, enter the Coastal Plain, as in parts of Virginia, Alabama, and western Georgia. Vegetation from this alliance is known from Ozark and Ouachita national forests RNAs (Roaring Branch and Dismal Hollow) and occurs on the Shoal Creek District of the Talladega National Forest. One association, the "Piedmont American Beech Heath Bluff" (CEGL004539) ranges peripherally into the Coastal Plain (ECO57).
Range: The core concept of the range of this alliance includes areas inland from the Coastal Plain, as Quercus rubra is absent from large areas of this region. Forests in this alliance occur in the Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and Interior Low Plateau, and on protected slopes and ravines in the Ozarks, central Ouachita Mountains, and Arkansas Valley. This alliance is known from the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. It may possibly occur in southern Indiana and Connecticut.
States/Provinces: AL AR CT DE GA IN? KY MA MD NC NJ NY OH OK PA RI SC TN VA WV
TNC Ecoregions: 38:C, 39:C, 43:C, 44:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 57:C, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ab:CCC, 221Ac:CCC, 221Ad:CCC, 221Ae:CCP, 221Dc:CPP, 221Ea:CCC, 221Ef:CCP, 221Eg:CCP, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hc:CCP, 221Hd:CCP, 221He:CCC, 221Ja:CCP, 221Jb:CC?, 221Jc:CCP, 222Ab:CCC, 222Ag:CCC, 222An:CCC, 222Cb:CC?, 222Cc:CC?, 222Cd:CC?, 222Ce:CC?, 222Cf:CC?, 222Cg:CC?, 222Da:CCP, 222Db:CCP, 222Dc:CCP, 222Dd:CCP, 222De:CCP, 222Dg:CC?, 222Di:CC?, 222Dj:CC?, 222Ea:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Ec:CC?, 222Ee:CCP, 222Ef:CCP, 222Eg:CCC, 222Eh:CCP, 222Ei:CCP, 222Ej:CCP, 222Ek:CCP, 222Em:CCP, 222En:CCP, 222Eo:CCP, 222F:CC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CCC, 231Ac:CCC, 231Ad:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCC, 231Ag:CCC, 231Ah:CCC, 231Ai:CCC, 231Aj:CCC, 231Ak:CCP, 231Am:CCP, 231An:CCC, 231Ao:CCC, 231Ba:C??, 231Bb:C??, 231Be:C??, 231Bg:C??, 231Bh:C??, 231Bi:C??, 231Bk:C??, 231Ca:CCP, 231Cb:CCP, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 231Ce:CCP, 231Cf:CCP, 231Cg:CCP, 231Da:CCC, 231Db:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, 231Dd:CCC, 231Gb:CCC, 232Aa:CCC, 232Ab:CCC, 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCC, 232C:CC, 234Ab:PPP, M221Dd:CCC, M222Aa:CCC, M222Ab:CCC, M231Aa:CCC, M231Ab:CCC, M231Ac:CCC
Federal Lands: COE (Falls Lake, Jordan Lake, Kerr Reservoir); DOD (Fort Benning); NPS (Buffalo, Guilford Courthouse, Mammoth Cave, Ninety Six, Rock Creek, Shiloh, Thomas Stone); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee?, Conecuh, Daniel Boone, Homochitto, Jefferson?, Land Between the Lakes, Ouachita, Ozark, Sumter, Talladega, Tuskegee, Uwharrie)
Synonymy: IA5g. Typic Mesic Piedmont Forest, in part (Allard 1990); Mixed Mesophytic Forest, in part (Foti 1994b); Piedmont Mesic Broad-leaved Deciduous Forest (Ambrose 1990a); Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest, Piedmont Subtype (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Appalachian mesophytic forest, in part (Evans 1991); Beech RV. ? (Pyne 1994); T1B4aI1a. Fagus grandifolia - Magnolia tripetala (Foti et al. 1994); T1B4aI1b. Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Quercus spp. (alba, muehlenbergii, rubra) (Foti et al. 1994); Beech - Sugar Maple: 60, in part (Eyre 1980); Northern Red Oak: 55, in part (Eyre 1980); Maritime Oak - Holly Forest / Woodland (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Coastal Forest/Woodland (Swain and Kearsley 2001)
References: Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Foti 1994b, Foti et al. 1994, Golden 1979, Jones 1988a, Jones 1988b, Martin and Smith 1991, Pyne 1994, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Swain and Kearsley 2001, USFS 1990
Authors: D.J. ALLARD, MOD. A.S. WE, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.229
FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - QUERCUS ALBA - LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA - CARYA SPP. FOREST
American Beech - White Oak - Tuliptree - Hickory species Forest
Northeastern Beech - White Oak Forest G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Southeastern Coastal Plain Acid Hardwood Slope Forests (307-10; n/a)
Concept: This forest of mesic to dry-mesic soils, found in the northern Piedmont and adjacent ecoregions, is characterized by a mixed canopy of Quercus alba, Quercus falcata, Quercus rubra, Quercus coccinea, Fagus grandifolia, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Sassafras albidum, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Diospyros virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Fraxinus americana, and Ilex opaca occur in the northern edge of the range. The subcanopy is characterized by Carpinus caroliniana and Cornus florida. The shrub layer is well-developed and can include Viburnum acerifolium, Viburnum dentatum, and Euonymus americana. Heath shrubs, such as Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium pallidum, may be common, but not abundant. Vines are common, including Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Smilax glauca, and Toxicodendron radicans. The herb layer is comprised of Polystichum acrostichoides, Uvularia perfoliata, Cypripedium acaule, Mitchella repens, Tipularia discolor, Goodyera pubescens, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Chimaphila maculata, Carex swanii, Medeola virginiana, Athyrium filix-femina, Carex digitalis, Carex willdenowii, Epifagus virginiana, Maianthemum canadense, Desmodium nudiflorum, and Polygonatum biflorum. Podophyllum peltatum, Arisaema triphyllum, and Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa) can occur in more northern examples.
Comments: "This type needs a little nomenclatural revision, but is basically a very robust 'mesic mixed hardwood' association. It occurs in the Chesapeake Bay Lowlands and Piedmont ecoregions, but NOT in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, as far as I know. It grades into other mesic mixed hardwood associations in the southern part of the CBL and the Piedmont" (G. Fleming pers. comm. 2003).
Range: Currently described from Virginia northward to New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania.
States/Provinces: DE:S5, MD:S?, NJ:S3, PA:S1, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 52:C, 58:C, 61:C, 62:C
USFS Ecoregions: 232Ac:CCC, 232Ad:CCC, 232Br:CCC, 232Bt:CCC, 232Bx:CCP, 232Bz:CCC, 232C:C?
Federal Lands: NPS (Rock Creek)
Synonymy: Maritime forest (Rawinski 1984), Southern New England oak / pine forest on sandy / gravelly soils (Rawinski 1984). in part, CNE Mesic hardwood Forest on acidic bedrock / till (Rawinski 1984). in part, Mesic Coastal Plain mixed oak forest, mixed oak - beech forest subtype (Breden 1989). in part, Quercus spp. - Carya spp. / Cornus florida - Ilex opaca Mesic Forest (Clancy 1993b), Coastal Plain Forest (Smith 1983) B. in part, Mixed oak forest of the south Jersey mesic uplands (Robichaud and Buell 1973), Fagus grandifolia - Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus (alba, rubra) / Polystichum acrostichoides - Aster divaricatus Forest (Fleming 2001), Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (alba, rubra) - Liriodendron tulipifera / Ilex opaca var. opaca - (Asimina triloba) Forest (Patterson pers. comm.)
References: Berdine 1998, Bernard and Bernard 1971, Bowman 2000, Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Clancy 1993b, Davis et al. 1992, Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming pers. comm., McCoy and Fleming 2000, Patterson pers. comm., Rawinski 1984, Robichaud and Buell 1973, Smith 1983
Authors: S.L. Neid, ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006075
FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA - QUERCUS RUBRA / CORNUS FLORIDA / POLYSTICHUM ACROSTICHOIDES - HEXASTYLIS VIRGINICA FOREST
American Beech - Northern Red Oak / Flowering Dogwood / Christmas Fern - Virginia Heartleaf Forest
Piedmont Acidic Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest G3G4 (01-01-18)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Mesic Acid Hardwood Forests (420-10; n/a)
Concept: This association represents the more typical mesic mixed hardwood forest of the Piedmont. The canopy of stands of this association is dominated by mesophytic trees such as Fagus grandifolia, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, and in the western Piedmont, Tsuga canadensis. Typical understory trees include Cornus florida, Oxydendrum arboreum, Acer rubrum, and Ilex opaca. Shrub species may include Vaccinium stamineum, Viburnum rafinesquianum, Euonymus americana, and sometimes Kalmia latifolia. The herb layer is often moderately dense and diverse, though it may be sparse under heavy shade. Herb species may include Polystichum acrostichoides, Viola spp., Dichanthelium spp. (= Panicum spp.), Galium circaezans, Hexastylis arifolia, Hexastylis minor, Desmodium nudiflorum, Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. umbilicatum, Chamaelirium luteum, Epifagus virginiana, Tiarella cordifolia var. collina, Heuchera americana, Stellaria pubera, Podophyllum peltatum, Prenanthes serpentaria, Thalictrum thalictroides, Chrysogonum virginianum var. virginianum, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Botrychium virginianum. Exact composition varies locally with position on slope and nature of soil. Western Piedmont sites often have increasing importance of Tsuga canadensis, Rhododendron spp., and other species that are more typical of the Southern Blue Ridge.
Range: This association is found in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States.
States/Provinces: GA:S?, MD:S?, NC:S4, SC:S?, VA:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 52:C, 58:C
USFS Ecoregions: 231Aa:CCC, 231Ae:CCC
Federal Lands: COE (Falls Lake, Jordan Lake, Kerr Reservoir); NPS (Guilford Courthouse, Ninety Six, Thomas Stone); USFS (Uwharrie)
Synonymy: Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (alba, rubra) - Liriodendron tulipifera / Ilex opaca var. opaca - (Asimina triloba) Forest (Fleming pers. comm.), Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra - Quercus alba / Carpinus caroliniana Forest (Lea 2002a)
References: Fleming 2001, Fleming et al. 2001, Fleming pers. comm., LeGrand and Dalton 1987, Lea 2002a, Nehmeth 1968, Oosting 1942, Peet and Christensen 1980, Peet et al. 2002, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Skeen et al. 1980
Authors: M.P. Schafale, SCS Confidence: Identifier: CEGL008465
QUERCUS ALBA - FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA WESTERN ALLEGHENY PLATEAU FOREST
White Oak - American Beech Western Allegheny Plateau Forest
Western Allegheny Oak - Beech Forest
Concept: This white oak - beech forest of the Western Allegheny Plateau occurs on deep, fine-textured soils of coves. Quercus alba is dominant, with associates including Fagus grandifolia, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Nyssa sylvatica, and Carya. The subcanopy is characterized by Fagus grandifolia, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, and Carya glabra. The shrub layer is made up of Cornus florida, Ostrya virginiana, and Castanea dentata. The herbaceous layer is comprised of Goodyera repens, Dioscorea quaternata, Polystichum acrostichoides, Ageratina altissima, Arisaema triphyllum, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Carex blanda, Botrychium virginianum, Carex albursina, Polygonatum pubescens, Viola X palmata, and Prosartes lanuginosa (= Disporum lanuginosum).
Comments: See Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba / Cornus florida Forest (CEGL007881), which may be synonymous with this type. Braun (1950, p. 63) describes a beech-white oak type, but noted that it overlaps considerably with the Beech-Maple Unglaciated Forest type, Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Unglaciated Forest (CEGL002411), in the Western Allegheny and Cumberland Plateau regions. It may be that CEGL002411 should be restricted primarily to Braun's Western Mesophytic Region (southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Kentucky, western Tennessee) and this type primarily to the Mixed Mesophytic Region. However, Ohio ecologists (e.g., Gordon 1969, Anderson 1996) have generally recognized an unglaciated beech-maple-tuliptree type in the Western Allegheny region of southeastern Ohio, rather than a white oak-beech type. Fike (1999) also recognizes a "tuliptree-beech-maple" type for this region, but makes no mention of a white oak-beech type. The white oak-beech type may be more important southward. Braun's Beech-White Oak type from southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana, an Illinoisan till plain flatwoods type, Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - (Quercus michauxii) - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest (CEGL005015), should not be confused with this type [see Braun 1950, p. 133, Braun 1936].
Range: This forest community is found primarily on lower slopes of the Western Allegheny Plateau and Cumberland Mountains in the eastern U.S.
States/Provinces: MD?, OH:S?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 49:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ea:CCC, 221Ef:CCP, 221Eg:CCP
References: Anderson 1996, Braun 1936, Braun 1950, Gordon 1969, WVNHP n.d. (b)
Authors: ECS Confidence: 3 Identifier: CEGL006144
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
|Return to Table of Contents|
This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010