Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance, found in the Great Lakes states and northeastern United States, is characterized by wetland forests strongly dominated by Tsuga canadensis. Canopy associates include Chamaecyparis thyoides (in the eastern portion of this alliance's range), Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Nyssa sylvatica (in the east), Pinus strobus, Betula alleghaniensis, and Thuja occidentalis (in the center and west). The forest floor generally receives little light due to the dense canopy and thus has poorly developed herb and shrub layers. Shrubs occur in low abundance and may include Corylus cornuta (in the west), Vaccinium corymbosum, Lindera benzoin (in the east and center), and Ilex verticillata. Osmunda spp. and Viola spp. are often found in these communities across their range while Onoclea sensibilis is common in the east and in the west Maianthemum canadense, Cornus canadensis, and Coptis trifolia can usually be found.
Soils of this alliance vary from saturated muck to imperfectly drained mineral soils and are often acidic. Communities in this alliance occur in upland valleys created by bedrock depressions, on lower slopes, or adjacent to streams and lakes. In most cases they are transitional between wetland and upland communities. Microtopography is sometimes characterized by mounds and depressions caused by uprooted trees.
Range: This alliance is found in northern Wisconsin, Michigan, northern Ohio, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New Jersey, Maryland, and New York. It is in Canada in Ontario and possibly Quebec.
States/Provinces: CT MA MD ME MI? NB NH NJ NS? NY OH ON PA RI VT WI WV
TNC Ecoregions: 47:P, 48:C, 49:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Ea:CCC, 212Eb:CC?, 212Ec:CCC, 212Ed:CCC, 212Fa:CCP, 212Fb:CCC, 212Fc:CCC, 212Fd:CCP, 212Ga:CCP, 212Gb:CCP, 212Ha:CCC, 212Hb:CCP, 212Hh:CCP, 212Hl:CCP, 212Hm:CCP, 212Ho:CCP, 212Hr:CCP, 212Ht:CCP, 212Hu:CCP, 212Hv:CC?, 212Hw:CCP, 212Ia:C??, 212Ja:CPP, 212Jb:CPP, 212Jc:CPP, 212Je:CPP, 212Jf:CPP, 212Jl:CPP, 212Jm:CPP, 212Jn:CPP, 212Jo:CPP, 221Ac:CCP, 221Ad:CCP, 221Ae:CCC, 221Af:CCP, 221Ag:CCP, 221Ah:CCP, 221Ai:CCP, 221Aj:CCP, 221Ak:CCP, 221Al:CCP, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bb:CCP, 221Bc:CCP, 221Bd:CCC, 221Ea:CCC, 221Fa:CCC, 221Fb:CCC, 221I:CC, 222Ia:CCC, 222Ib:CC?, 222Ic:CC?, 222Id:CCP, 222Ie:CC?, 222Ja:CCC, M212Ad:CCC, M212Ae:CCP, M212Af:CCP, M212Ba:CCP, M212Bb:CCP, M212Cc:CCP, M212Cd:CCP, M212Da:CCC, M212Db:CCC, M212Dc:CCC, M212Dd:CCC, M212De:CCC, M212Ea:CCP, M212Eb:CCP, M212Fa:CCC, M212Fb:CCC, M221Aa:CCP, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ba:CCP, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CC?, M221Bf:CCC, M221Ca:C??, M221Cb:C??, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCP
Federal Lands: USFS (Chequamegon)
Synonymy: "mixed hemlock - Atlantic white cedar - red maple - yellow birch type" (Motzkin 1991); Hemlock - Yellow Birch: 24, in part (Eyre 1980); Atlantic White-Cedar: 97, in part (Eyre 1980); Eastern Hemlock: 23, in part (Eyre 1980); Tsuga / Maianthemum - Coptis type. Wisconsin (Kotar et al. 1988); Hemlock-Hardwood Swamp (Swain and Kearsley 2001); Hemlock palustrine forest (Fike 1999); Northern Conifer Swamp (Smith 1991)
References: Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Fike 1999, Kotar et al. 1988, Motzkin 1991, Smith 1991, Swain and Kearsley 2001
Authors: MCS, Midwest Identifier: A.201
TSUGA CANADENSIS / RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM / SPHAGNUM SPP. FOREST
Eastern Hemlock / Great Rhododendron / Peatmoss species Forest
Eastern Hemlock - Great Laurel Swamp G? (97-12-01)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Northern Swamp Forests (490-16; n/a)
Northern Rich Conifer Swamps (490-22; 220.127.116.11)
Concept: This hemlock swamp of the Central Appalachians, southeastern New York and northern New Jersey occurs on saturated acidic muck to imperfectly drained mineral soils in upland valleys, bedrock depressions, low slopes, and adjacent to streams and lakes. Mounds and depressions caused by uprooted trees are typical. The tree canopy is closed or nearly closed and is dominated by Tsuga canadensis with associates including Acer rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus strobus, and Betula alleghaniensis. The well-developed shrub layer is strongly dominated by Rhododendron maximum. Other shrubs may include Ilex verticillata, Rhododendron viscosum, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Lindera benzoin. The sparse herb layer includes a variety of sedges such as Carex folliculata, Carex trisperma, Carex intumescens, as well as ferns and forbs such as Osmunda cinnamomea, Thelypteris palustris, Onoclea sensibilis, Maianthemum canadense, Cornus canadensis, Coptis trifolia, Symplocarpus foetidus, Trientalis borealis, and Calla palustris. The bryophyte layer is well-developed and strongly dominated by Sphagnum mosses. Other mosses may include Aulacomnium palustre, Hypnum imponens, and Leucobryum glaucum on drier hummocks.
States/Provinces: MD:S?, NJ:S1S2, NY:S4, PA:S?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 49:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 212Fb:CCP, 212Fc:CCP, 212Fd:CCP, 212Ga:CCP, 212Gb:CCP, 221Ae:CCC, 221Ba:CCC, 221Bd:CCC, 221Ea:CCP, 221F:CC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Bb:CCC, M221Bf:CCC, M221C:C?, M221Da:CCC
Synonymy: Hardwood-Conifer Swamp (Breden 1989)
References: Breden 1989, Breden et al. 2001, Edinger et al. 2002, Fike 1999, Karlin 1988
Authors: ECS Confidence: 2 Identifier: CEGL006279
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.B. Deciduous forest
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This Page Up-dated on February 09, 2010