Classification of Vegetation Communities of Maryland: First Iteration
A Subset of the International Classification of Ecological
Concept: This alliance includes forests dominated by Pinus virginiana and occurring in the Piedmont from Pennsylvania south to Alabama, and ranging west into the Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, the Cumberland Plateau, and in scattered locales of the Interior Low Plateau. Forests in this alliance may have admixtures of Pinus taeda, Pinus echinata, Pinus pungens, and/or Pinus rigida. These other species, if present, can have canopy coverage between 1 and 50%. Other associated species vary with the geographic distribution of the alliance. In many associations, a dense ericaceous shrub stratum is typical. This alliance includes both early successional forests resulting from natural or anthropogenic disturbance and natural forests in edaphically extreme situations. Typically, Pinus virginiana communities are short-lived as a forest and are more common as woodland communities [see II.C.3.N.a Pinus (rigida, pungens, virginiana) - Quercus prinus Woodland Alliance (A.677)]. Associated species vary with the geographic distribution of the alliance.
Comments: Appalachian pine-dominated associations need to be revisited in relation to the ecology of shortleaf pine, Pinus echinata. Are some stands of this type ones that historically were dominated by shortleaf pine? (MP 2002-03).
Range: Forests in this alliance are possible in the Piedmont from Pennsylvania south to Alabama, and ranging west into the Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, the Cumberland Plateau, and in scattered locales of the Interior Low Plateau. The range of the alliance includes parts of Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana.
States/Provinces: AL GA IN KY MD NC NJ OH PA SC TN VA WV
TNC Ecoregions: 43:C, 44:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 58:P, 59:C, 61:C
USFS Ecoregions: 221Da:CCP, 221Db:CCC, 221Ea:CC?, 221Eb:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCP, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCC, 221He:CCC, 221Ja:CCC, 221Jb:CCC, 221Jc:CCC, 222Da:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222Dd:CCC, 222Dg:CCC, 222Dj:CCC, 222Eb:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Eh:CCC, 222Ej:CCC, 222El:CCC, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fc:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CCC, 231Ac:CCP, 231Ad:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Af:CCP, 231Ag:CCP, 231Ah:CCP, 231Ai:CCP, 231Aj:CCP, 231Ak:CCP, 231Al:CCP, 231Am:CCP, 231An:CCP, 231Ao:CCP, 231Ap:CCP, 231Bc:CCC, 231Ca:CCP, 231Cb:CCP, 231Cc:CCP, 231Cd:CCC, 231Ce:CCP, 231Cf:CCP, 231Cg:CCP, 231Da:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Ba:CC?, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCP, M221Ca:CCP, M221Cb:CCP, M221Cc:CCC, M221Cd:CCC, M221Ce:CCC, M221Da:CCC, M221Db:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: DOD (Fort Jackson); NPS (Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Great Smoky Mountains, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh); TVA (Tellico); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, George Washington, Jefferson, Land Between the Lakes?, Nantahala, Oconee, Pisgah, Sumter, Talladega, Uwharrie?)
Synonymy: IA7a. Xeric Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest, in part (Allard 1990); Appalachian pine-oak forest, in part (Evans 1991); Pine--Oak/Heath, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990); Pine--Oak/Heath, in part (Nelson 1986); Virginia Pine CUPL, BR, RV (Pyne 1994); Virginia Pine - Mixed Oaks HR (Pyne 1994); Virginia Pine: 79, in part (Eyre 1980)
References: Allard 1990, Andreu and Tukman 1995, Barden 1977, Burns and Honkala 1990a, Chapman 1957, Cooper 1963, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Faber-Langendoen et al. 1996, Frothingham et al. 1926, Gettman 1974, Malter 1977, Nelson 1986, Pyne 1994, Racine 1966, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Whittaker 1956
Authors: D.J. ALLARD/K.D. PATTERSO, RW, Southeast Identifier: A.131
PINUS VIRGINIANA - PINUS (RIGIDA, ECHINATA) - (QUERCUS PRINUS) / VACCINIUM PALLIDUM FOREST
Virginia Pine - (Pitch Pine, Shortleaf Pine) - (Rock Chestnut Oak) / Hillside Blueberry Forest
Appalachian Low-Elevation Mixed Pine / Hillside Blueberry Forest G4? (01-02-11)
Ecological Group (SCS;MCS): Appalachian Highlands Xeric Virginia / Shortleaf Pine Woodlands
Concept: This community includes Pinus virginiana-dominated forests of low-elevation ridges and steep upper slopes, occurring primarily in the Appalachian provinces of the eastern United States, from central Pennsylvania, south and west to northern Georgia and northern Alabama. This community occurs on narrow ridges, steep slopes, and other exposed topographic positions, over shallow, infertile soils. This mainly evergreen forest is often of low stature, with a somewhat open to closed canopy, sparse to very dense shrub cover dominated by ericaceous species, and a sparse herb stratum. Pinus virginiana is the canopy dominant throughout the range of the type. In some parts of the range, other Pinus species may be canopy associates, as well as dry site Quercus species (e.g., Quercus prinus, Quercus coccinea). Deciduous species may form a subcanopy or sapling stratum, particularly in areas where fire has been excluded. Common shrub dominants include Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and Kalmia latifolia. Herbs vary with geography but are typical of infertile, xeric habitats. Some typical herbs in this forest are Baptisia tinctoria, Chimaphila maculata, Dichanthelium commutatum, Epigaea repens, Euphorbia corollata, Galax urceolata, Hypoxis hirsuta, Iris verna, Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, and Schizachyrium scoparium.
Comments: Some vegetation formerly placed (at least conceptually) in the Pinus virginiana - Quercus (coccinea,prinus) Forest Alliance (A.408) and its provisional association Pinus virginiana - Quercus (coccinea, prinus) Forest (CEGL005040), has been transferred here, with this association (CEGL007119) becoming more geographically inclusive. In Indiana examples, the substrate is primarily a matrix of acidic siltstone, shale, and sandstone. Rarely are cliffs formed; instead the setting is mostly very steep slopes with high hills and deep ravines. This association also includes vegetation from the transition between the Cumberland Plateau / Southern Ridge and Valley and the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain in Alabama. Though located in the Coastal Plain, these occurrences are physiographically and floristically similar to this montane association. Early successional vegetation associated with old fields, old pastures, clearcuts, and burned or eroded areas and dominated by Pinus virginiana is classified as Pinus virginiana Successional Forest (CEGL002591). Appalachian xeric oak forests with similar floristics, but with a mainly deciduous canopy are classed in Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest (CEGL006271). Appalachian shale forests and woodlands with Pinus virginiana occur on steep, shaley slopes and have a stunted canopies and sparse herb and shrub strata, characterized by species adapted to shaley substrates. These shale communities are classed in Pinus virginiana - Quercus (coccinea, prinus) Forest Alliance (A.408) and Pinus (rigida, pungens, virginiana) - Quercus prinus Woodland Alliance (A.677).
Range: This community occurs primarily in the Appalachian region of the United States, ranging from central Pennsylvania, south and west through the Ridge and Valley, Blue Ridge, and Cumberland Plateau to northern Georgia and Alabama, extending westward to scattered areas in the Interior Low Plateau and eastward into the upper Piedmont. It is reported from the states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, and is probably in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.
States/Provinces: AL:S?, GA:S?, IN:S?, KY:S5,S5, MD?, NC:S4, OH:S?, PA:S?, SC:S?, TN:S?, VA?, WV:S?
TNC Ecoregions: 43:C, 44:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 59:C, 61:P
USFS Ecoregions: 221Ea:CC?, 221Eb:CCC, 221Ec:CCC, 221Ed:CCP, 221Ef:CCC, 221Eg:CCC, 221Ha:CCC, 221Hb:CCC, 221Hc:CCP, 221He:CCC, 221Ja:CCC, 221Jb:CCC, 222Da:CCC, 222Dc:CCC, 222Dg:CCC, 222Dj:CCC, 222Eg:CCC, 222Ej:CCC, 222El:CCC, 222En:CCC, 222Eo:CCC, 222Fd:CCC, 222Ff:CCC, 231Aa:CCC, 231Ab:CCC, 231Ae:CCC, 231Bc:CCC, 231Cd:CCC, 231Da:CCC, 231Dc:CCC, M221Aa:CCP, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ac:CCC, M221Bd:CCP, M221Be:CCP, M221Cd:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC
Federal Lands: NPS (Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Great Smoky Mountains, Kennesaw Mountain, Kings Mountain, Mammoth Cave); USFS (Bankhead, Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Daniel Boone, Land Between the Lakes?, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter, Talladega)
Synonymy: Xeric Pine Forest, Pine - Heath Ridge Forest (Ambrose 1990a) B, Virginia Pine - Mixed Oaks, HR (Pyne 1994) B, Virginia Pine, BR, R&V, CUPL (Pyne 1994) B, IA7c. Xeric Virginia Pine Ridge Forest (Allard 1990) B, Virginia Pine: 79 (Eyre 1980) B, Virginia Pine - Oak: 78 (Eyre 1980) B, Virginia pine forest (CAP pers. comm. 1998), Oligotrophic Forest (Rawinski 1992) B, Low Mountain Pine Forest (Montane Pine Subtype) (Schafale 1998b)
References: Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Barden 1977, Burns and Honkala 1990a, CAP pers. comm. 1998, Cooper 1963, Core 1966, Evans 1991, Eyre 1980, Fike 1999, Gettman 1974, Homoya pers. comm., Malter 1977, NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data, Nelson 1986, Patterson et al. 1999, Peet et al. 2002, Pyne 1994, Racine 1966, Rawinski 1992, Schafale 1998b, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Walton et al. 1997, Whittaker 1956
Authors: K.D. Patterson, SCS Confidence: 1 Identifier: CEGL007119
- Maryland Vegetation Classification Subset Report I.A. Evergreen forest
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