Field Guide to Maryland's Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)

Field Guide to Maryland's Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)

True Frogs (Family Ranidae)

Sillouette of frog True toads have thick, dry, warty skin and have enlarged, warty glands in the shoulder region called parotoid glands. Unlike most frogs, true toads tend to produce short hops to escape danger rather than long leaps (Conant and Collins 1998).

There are only two species of true toads found in Maryland. They include the eastern American toad (Anaxyrus americanus americanus) and the Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus  fowleri).

The two species can be distinguished from each other based on the number of warts in each pigmented spot on the dorsum, the presence or absence of conspicuously enlarged warts on the tibia, spotting on the chest, and the amount of separation between the cranial crest and the parotoid glands (Conant and Collins 1998).

Frog and Toad Anatomy

Click on species name for profiles
of each of the 2 species of toads found in Maryland.

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PhotoCommon NameScientific NameState Status
Photo of adult Eastern America Toad, courtesy of Scott A. Smith

Photo of adult Eastern America Toad, courtesy of Scott A. Smith

Eastern American Toad​

Anaxyrus americanus americanus

Adult Fowler's Toad, photo courtesy of Scott A. Smith

​Fowler’s Toad

Fowler’s Toad
Anaxyrus  fowleri