Algae are a natural and critical part of our Chesapeake and Coastal
Bays ecosystems. Algae, like land plants, capture the sun’s energy and
support the food web that leads to fish and shellfish. They occur in a
size range from tiny microscopic cells floating in the water column
(phytoplankton) to large mats of visible macroalgae that grow on bottom sediments.
Algae may become harmful if they occur in an unnaturally high
abundance or if they produce a toxin. A high abundance of algae can
block sunlight to underwater bay grasses, consume oxygen in the water
leading to fish kills, produce surface scum and odors, and interfere
with the feeding of shellfish and other organisms that filter water to
obtain their food. Some algal species can also produce chemicals that
are toxic to humans and aquatic life. Fortunately, of the more than 700
species of algae in Chesapeake Bay, less than 2% of them are believed to
have the ability to produce toxic substances.
To report harmful algal blooms, please call the Department of Natural
Resources, Tidewater Ecosystem Assessment Division at (410) 260-8630
during normal business hours. If there are fish kills, fish health, or
human health concerns associated with the observed algal bloom, please
contact the Chesapeake Bay Safety and Environmental Hotline at (877) 224-7229 at any time.
There are a number of algal species that have caused problems in
Maryland for many years and others that have only been recognized
recently. For example, there have been long standing problems with algal
overabundance in Maryland’s Chesapeake and Coastal Bays, especially in
some of the tidal tributaries, due to nutrient over-enrichment and
subsequent blooms of numerous species of algae.
Economic losses from the effects of HABs may affect the commercial
fishing industry, tourism, cultural traditions, recreational and
subsistence harvests. During 1997 in Maryland across all seafood
industry segments, instead of continuing a pace of a 7.4% gain over
1996, 1997 sales for all industry segments combined had declined by over
10% (Maryland Sea Grant). Lost sales volume was estimated at $43
million due to Pfiesteria panic with estimated sale without Pfiesteria
panic of $253 million in the State. Additionally, a medical team found
neurological problems in persons exposed to localized toxic outbreaks of
Pfiesteria in Maryland during 1997.
Maryland has experienced severe Mahogany tides due to blooms of Prorocentrum,
most notably in 2000. The widely distributed and significant bloom
levels resulted in some reduced growth and mortality of hatchery
shellfish and reduced seagrass bed distribution within bloom regions.
Indirect effects of such a bloom often lead to low dissolved oxygen that
can affect a broad array of living resources; several fish and
shellfish kills were evident in the bloom region under such 2000 bloom
The blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa
also had significant blooms in the summer of 2000 in Chesapeake Bay.
Algal bloom samples tested toxic and resulted in temporary,
precautionary beach closures in the upper Bay. A bloom of Dinophysis acuminata was
detected in the Potomac River during the winter 2001 and resulted in a
temporary closure of shellfish waters. The shellfish waters were
reopened as toxin levels in oysters were found to be below threshold
levels by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The Coastal Bays
experienced macroalgae blooms that concerned citizens about their effects on boating, Pfiesteria and Brown tide blooms occurred, and potentially toxic species of Chattonella, Fibrocapsa and Heterosigma were identified in the region for the first time between 2000 and 2002.
Maryland DNR operates a longstanding comprehensive Chesapeake Bay Monitoring Programs that includes the regular measurement of algae. A similar program is now being implemented for the Coastal Bays. Both of these programs provide a “safety net” to insure that major harful algae blooms are identified and appropriate actions taken which can include anything from providing the public with general information about what is happening to following up with public health officials to protect human health.
These programs alone are not sufficient to track all HABs or their
impacts because of the lack of monitoring stations in many areas and the
need for special techniques to identify HABs and their toxins.
Localized monitoring has been put in place in areas where potential HABs
such as Chattonella, Heterosigma, Brown Tide or Pfiesteria have
been found to reoccur during monitoring. In 2003, a shallow-water
monitoring program linked with nearshore continuous monitoring network
will further enhance our abilities to follow HABs and their effects on
the Bays. Citizens have participated in monitoring by reporting on
obvious water discolorations, odors, fish disease events and fish kills
to the Chesapeake Bay Safety and Environmental Hotline (877) 224-7229 which prompts furthe investigations into algal species present and conditions related to the report.
In addition to monitoring, Maryland is working with researchers to
determine the factors that initiate and maintain bloom events. Many of
these Harmful Algae Blooms are related to nutrient enrichment.
Management actions are being addressed to reduce nutrient inputs in
meeting the 2014 Chesapeake Watertshed Agreement
goals for improving water quality conditions including the reduction of
these bloom events. In the Coastal Bays, the State is a partner in the Maryland Coastal Bays Program and is working to help implement nutrient reduction strategies outlined in the Comprehensive Conservation & Management Plan for Maryland's Coastal Bays (2015-2025).
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